Evolution ya Chiphunzitso cha Utatu
Evolution ya Chiphunzitso cha Utatu

Evolution ya Chiphunzitso cha Utatu

Akhristu amakono ali ndi ngongole yothokoza ku mpingo woyamba. Cholowa chake cholimba mtima pozunzidwa chikuwonekabe mpaka pano ngati umboni wolimba mtima wachikhulupiriro. Komabe, cholowachi chimakonda kuphimba kukhumudwitsa kwa aphunzitsi onyenga omwe adalowa m'khola Khristu atakwera kumwamba. Akhristu otchedwa Akhristuwa, omwe amadziwika kuti Gnostics, amapotoza mochenjera pogwiritsa ntchito nzeru zachikunja zachi Greek kuti atsimikizire chiphunzitso cha Utatu. 

Akuti makhonsolo a m'zaka za zana lachinayi anachotsa ziphunzitso zoterezi ndipo anateteza ziphunzitso zachikhristu kuti zisalowerere m'mafilosofi achikunja. Koma kufufuza mosamalitsa za mbiri yakale kumavumbula nkhani yosiyana kwambiri. Nkhaniyi ikufotokoza zenizeni za anthu ndi zochitika zokhudzana ndi kukula kwa chiphunzitso cha Utatu zomwe ndizofunikira pakuwunika molondola, koma sizitchulidwa kawirikawiri - ngati zingatchulidwepo konse mu chiphunzitso chofala.

ZAKA XNUMX ZOYAMBA

Israeli wakale nthawi zonse anali ndi kusiyanasiyana kokhulupirira Mulungu m'modzi wapamwamba. Chikhulupiriro ichi cha Israeli chodziwika kuti Shema likupezeka pa Deuteronomo 6: 4: “Tamverani Aisiraeli inu: Yehova Mulungu wathu, Yehova ndiye mmodzi.”

Shema motsutsana ndi chiphunzitso cha utatu

Ngakhale pali nthawi zingapo mu Genesis pomwe Mulungu amati "Tiyeni," NIV ndi NET1 Mabaibulo owerengera amazindikira kuti Mulungu amalankhula ndi bwalo lakumwamba la angelo. Kugwiritsa ntchito dzina la Yahweh (YHWH) mogwirizana ndi Chipangano Chakale mogwirizana ndi maina ena apadera monga Imendipo my, ziyenera kuchotsa kukayika kulikonse kuti Aisrayeli akale amakhulupirira kuti Mulungu ndi mmodzi yekha.

Yesu mwini adatsimikizira Shema pogwira mawu chiphunzitso chakale ichi cha Israeli mu Marko 12:29. Komabe sananene izi “Ambuye ndi mmodzi” amatanthauza china chilichonse kupatula momwe Israeli ankamvetsetsa nthawi zonse kuti zikutanthauza - munthu mmodzi yekha. Munthawi yonse yautumiki wake, adazindikira kuti Atate akumwamba ndi Mulungu ndipo nthawi zonse amadzisiyanitsa ndi "Mulungu woona yekha" amene amamtumikira (Yoh 17: 3).

Atangoukitsidwa komanso kukwera kumwamba, Petro analalikira ulaliki kwa Ayuda anzake. Koma mu ulalikiwu Peter sanalenge za Utatu wa Mulungu. M'malomwake, ananena kuti Mulungu ndi Atate kumwamba. Kenako adalongosola Yesu ngati mwamuna wotsimikiziridwa ndi Mulungu, ndi Mzimu ngati mphatso za Mulungu (Machitidwe 2: 14-40). Uthengawu unali wokwanira chipulumutso kwa onse omwe anali ndi makutu akumva.

Momwemonso Paulo, m'kalata yake yopita kwa Aefeso, adazindikira Mulungu m'modzi ngati Atate (Aef. 4: 6), ndikumutcha kuti ndi "Mulungu wa Ambuye wathu Yesu" (Aef. 1:17). Chifukwa chake Yesu "akhala kudzanja lamanja" (Aef. 1:20) wa Mulungu wake, yemwe ndi Mulungu m'modzi wa Israeli. Mawu ofanana nawo amapezeka m'makalata a Paulo. Kuphatikiza apo, mopanda kusiyanitsa, Chipangano Chakale ndi NT zimazindikiritsa Mulungu m'modzi wa Israeli ngati Atate yekha (mwachitsanzo Mal. 2:10, 1 Akorinto 8: 6; Aef. 4: 6; 1 Ti. 2: 5).

Ngakhale Yesu amatchedwa "Mulungu" kangapo mu Chipangano Chatsopano, izi zikutsatira Chipangano Chakale momwe dzina laulemu "Mulungu"elohim m'Chiheberi, theos m'Chigiriki) nthawi zina amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwa osankhidwa a Yahweh posonyeza kuti ali oimira.2 Ahebri 1: 8-9 akuwonetsera bwino mfundo imeneyi. Apa, Salmo 45: 6-7 likugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa Yesu, kuwonetsa kuti ndiye woimira wamkulu wa Yahweh komanso wachiwiri wachifumu:

Koma za Mwana akuti, "Mpando wanu wachifumu, Mulungu, ukhala kosatha ndipo mudakonda… Mukonda chilungamo, ndipo mudana nacho choyipa; choncho Mulungu, Mulungu wanu wakudzozani Ndi mafuta achimwemwe koposa anzako. ”

Salmo 45: 6-7

Dr. Thomas L. Constable, pulofesa wofotokoza za Baibulo ku Dallas Theological Seminary, anathirira ndemanga pa ukwati wamfumuwu womwe akatswiri ambiri amakhulupirira kuti poyamba udalembedwa kwa mfumu yam'mbuyomu ya David:3

Wolemba adatchula mfumu yake yamunthu kuti "Mulungu" (Elohim). Sanatanthauze kuti mfumuyo ndi Mulungu koma kuti anaimirira m'malo mwa Mulungu ndikumuimira. Yerekezerani ndi Ekisodo 21: 6; 22: 8-9; ndi Masalmo 82: 1 pomwe olemba Baibulo amatcha oweruza aku Israeli milungu chifukwa amaimira Mulungu. Uku ndikutamanda kwakukulu kwa mfumu. Mulungu anali atadalitsa mfumu iyi chifukwa idayimira Ambuye mokhulupirika polamulira monga momwe amachitira Yahweh.

Dr.Thomas Constable, Mfundo za Constable pa Baibulo (Salmo 45: 6)

Katswiri wa Chipangano Chakale Walter Bruggemann akufotokozanso kuti mu Masalmo 45, "[Mfumu] adadzozedwa mokondwera ndi mafuta ndi Mulungu, posonyeza kuti Mulungu wasankha mfumuyo ngati mkhalapakati. Mfumu ikuyimira Mulungu polamulira anthu aku Yerusalemu ndikuyankhula nawo. Mfumuyi imayimiranso anthu polankhula ndi Mulungu m'pemphero. Wolemba ndakatulo amakondwerera mfumu yabwino, yomwe ili ndi ubale wapadera ndi Mulungu ndipo imabweretsa chilungamo ndi ulemu kuufumu. ” 4

Chipangano Chatsopano chimatsimikizira kuti liwu loti "Mulungu" likugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa Yesu mu izi choyimira tanthauzo pomutsindika kuti Yesu ali Mulungu womulamulira, ndiye Mulungu m'modzi wa Israeli.5 Ukulu wa Yesu pamwamba pa oimira ena onse a YHWH akuwonetsedwa ndi kubadwa kwake namwali ngati Adamu wachiwiri wopanda tchimo, ndikutsimikizika ndikukwezedwa kwake "kudzanja lamanja la Mulungu" - udindo womwe umamuyika iye pamwamba pa dongosolo lonse pomwe anali nthawi yomweyo kusiyanitsa iye kwa Mulungu m'modzi amene amampembedza kufikira lero lino ngati Mulungu wake (monga Chiv. 1: 6; 3: 2, 12).

Platoism motsutsana ndi Chiyuda cha m'Baibulo

Olimba motsutsana ndi chiphunzitso cha utatu

Chaka cha 70 AD chidasinthiratu mpingo watsopano. Yerusalemu adalandidwa ndi gulu lankhondo la Roma, ndikumwaza Ayuda omwe adapulumuka ndikuchotsa Chikhristu kuchokera komwe idabadwira Chiyuda. Ambiri mwa atumwi anali ataphedwa panthawiyi, ndipo posakhalitsa mpingo unayendetsedwa mobisa ndi kuzunzidwa kwa Roma.

Chikhristu chidapitilira kufalikira kunja kuchokera ku Yerusalemu ndikufikira pagulu lachikunja la Agiriki ndi Aroma lodzala m'malingaliro a wafilosofi wotchuka wachi Greek Plato (428 BC). Plato analemba nkhani yopeka yonena za chilengedwe yotchedwa Timayo zomwe zimaphatikizapo malingaliro abodza okhudza momwe munthu alili omwe pambuyo pake angakhudze kwambiri chiphunzitso chachikhristu cha atumwi. Catholic Encyclopedia imati:

Kuphatikiza apo, chidwi cha Plato m'chilengedwe chimayang'aniridwa ndi malingaliro azam'dziko lapansi okangalika ndi World-Soul, yomwe, pozindikira momwe imathandizira, imachita zinthu zonse ndicholinga. . . amakhulupirira kuti mzimu [waumunthu] unalipo usanalumikizane ndi thupi. [Plato] lingaliro lonse la Maganizopakadali pano, osachepera, monga amagwiritsidwira ntchito kudziwitsa anthu, amatengera chiphunzitso chokhala ndi moyo asanakhaleko.

Catholic Encyclopedia, Plato ndi Plato

Plato "World-Soul" amadziwikanso kuti Logos, zomwe zimangotanthauza mawu. Mu filosofi ya Plato, Logos amatanthauza mfundo yolongosoka yanzeru yachilengedwe chonse. Amawonetsedwa ngati mulungu wachiwiri wopangidwa ndi Wam'mwambamwamba kumayambiriro kwa chilengedwe. Izi Logos demiurge ikupitiliza kulenga zonse zakuthupi ndi miyoyo yonse ya anthu.6

Malinga ndi Plato, miyoyo yaumunthu imakhalapo kale, imakhala ndi milungu kumwamba mpaka ikatsikira kudziko lapansi ndikulowa m'mimba kuti abadwe ngati anthu. Amadzabadwanso kosalekeza ngati anthu ena (kapena nyama) mpaka atapeza nzeru zokwanira kuti amasulidwe kuchokera ku thupi kuti akwere kumwamba monga miyoyo yosakhalitsa thupi.7

Mosiyana kwambiri ndi Agiriki, malembo achiheberi amaphunzitsa kuti anthu amayamba kukhalapo akabadwa m'mimba. Genesis 2: 7 akuwonetsa kuti moyo wamunthu (mphwa m'Chihebri) sichinthu chopanda tanthauzo koma chimakhala ndi awiri zinthu pophatikizana: mpweya wa Mulungu ndi fumbi lapansi. Chifukwa chake, lingaliro lokhalo momwe moyo wamunthu ukhoza "kukhalako" uli mu chikonzero chamuyaya cha Mulungu, lingaliro lomwe limadziwika kuti okonzedweratu. EC Dewick akunena izi:

Pamene Myuda adanena kuti china chake "chidakonzedweratu," adaganiza kuti "chidalipo kale" m'mbali yayikulu ya moyo. Mbiri yadziko lapansi ndiyomwe idakonzedweratu chifukwa idakhala kale, mwanjira ina, yomwe idalipo kale ndipo chifukwa chake idakonzedwa. Lingaliro lachiyuda loti kukonzedweratu litha kusiyanitsidwa ndi lingaliro lachi Greek loti kukhalapo kulibe chifukwa cha lingaliro la "kukhalapo" mu cholinga chaumulungu.

EC Dewick, Oyambirira Achikhristu Eschatology, pp. 253-254

Lingaliro ili limapezeka m'malemba onse komanso m'mabuku achi arabi owonjezera a M'kachisi Wachiwiri. Zitsanzo zina ndi izi:

  • Ndisanakulenge [Yeremiya] m'mimba ndinakudziwa, ndipo usanabadwe ndinakulemekeza; Ndakusankha kuti ukhale mneneri kwa anthu a mitundu ina. (Yer. 1:5)
  • . . AMBUYE [Yahweh]. . .undipanga [Mesiya] kuchokera m'mimba kuti ndikhale wantchito wake, kuti ndibweretse Yakobo kwa iye. . . (Yes. 49:5)
  • Koma ndiye adandipanga [Mose], ndipo adandikonzekeretsa kuyambira pachiyambi cha dziko lapansi kuti ndikhale nkhoswe ya pangano Lake. (Chipangano cha Mose 1:14, ca 150 BC)

Kuchokera pakuyang'ana kwachiyuda, anthu ofunikira kwambiri mu chipulumutso cha Mulungu anali otsimikizika kuti adanenedwa kuti "adapangidwa" kapena "kudziwika" asanabadwe. Imeneyi inali njira chabe yochitira zinthu yosonyeza kuti Mulungu amaikiratu zam'tsogolo. Lingaliro lachihebri la kukhalapo kwamunthu wophiphiritsira mkati mwa chikonzero cha Mulungu ndi losemphana kotheratu ndi lingaliro lachi Greek loti kukhalako kwa munthu asanakhalepo monga zinthu zamoyo zopanda kuzindikira.

Philo Judaeus (20 BC - 50 AD)

Philo Judaeus anali wafilosofi wachiyuda wachi Greek yemwe amakhala ku Alexandria, Egypt nthawi ya Khristu. Amadziwika kwambiri chifukwa chophatikiza zinthu zachipembedzo chachikunja monga Plato, Stoicism, ndi Gnostic Mysticism ndi Chiyuda chake munkhani zingapo za Chipangano Chakale. Ndemanga izi pambuyo pake zidakhudza kwambiri zamulungu za abambo ambiri ampingo woyamba.

Alexandria unali mzinda wokhala ndi Ayuda ambiri omwe anali atawonetsa kale kuyanjana kwa zipembedzo zambiri zachikunja zachi Greek ndi Aigupto. Katswiri Alfred Plummer ananena kuti mtundu wa Alexandria wa Chiyuda ndi “theosophy,” pozindikira zimenezo “Anali chiphunzitso chimodzi mwa ziphunzitso za anthu.” 8

Kugwirizana kwa Philo ndi filosofi ya Plato kumadziwika bwino. Adaganizira Plato the “Wokoma kwambiri kuposa olemba onse,” 9 ndipo amakhulupirira ziphunzitso za Plato monga kukhalapo kwa moyo wa munthu ndi tsogolo la muyaya. Harold Willoughby akuwona zakusintha kwa Philo:

Chifukwa chokonda nzeru za Agiriki komanso kukhulupirika kwake ku chipembedzo chake, Philo adakumana ndi vuto. Sankafuna kutengera nzeru kapena chipembedzo; choncho adafuna kuwayanjanitsa. Poyesa izi anali kuyesera kuchita zomwe amuna ena oganiza bwino amtundu wake m'malo omwewo adayesetsa kuchita asanabadwe. Zoposa zaka zana ndi theka m'mbuyomo, Aristobulus adafotokoza kufanana pakati pa chikhulupiriro cha makolo ake ndi malingaliro a Plato, omwe adalongosola poganiza kuti wafilosofi wachi Greek adatengera malingaliro ake kwa Mose. mu Pentateuch zilizonse zomwe adaona kuti ndizothandiza m'machitidwe osiyanasiyana amitundu. Iyi inali njira yovuta komanso yachiwawa; koma Philo anachikwaniritsa mosavuta pogwiritsa ntchito njira yophiphiritsira yomasulira, chida chochokera kwa Asitoiki.

Harold Adaway, Kubadwanso Kwachikunja,ch IX

Philo poyesera kuphatikiza nzeru za Plato ndi Chipangano Chakale zimakhudza lingaliro la Logos. Chikhalidwe chachi Greek ndi Chiheberi chimapereka malo otchuka kwa Logos, koma anali ndi malingaliro osiyana kwambiri kumbuyo kwa dzinali.

Plato Logos anali mulungu wachiwiri komanso wokonda kuzindikira. Zizindikiro za Chipangano Chakale za YHWH, komano, sizinali a amene koma a chani. Ngakhale kuti nthawi zina anali kutchulidwa ngati munthu (monga tawonera mu Miyambo 8), silinatanthauze munthu wodziyimira pawokha, koma mapulani, malangizo, ndi kulumikizana mwachangu kwa YHWH, zomwe zimaperekedwa kwa omwe amalandira ndi angelo, maloto, kapena masomphenya.10

M'ndemanga za Philo, kusiyana kwakukulu kumeneku pakati pa Logos yachigiriki ndi ma logo achiheberi sikunasinthe. Amawonetsa ma logo a Mulungu ngati chilichonse popanda chifukwa11 kwa wodziyimira pawokha "mulungu wachiwiri."12 Amayambitsanso lingaliro loti Mngelo wa AMBUYE wa Chipangano Chakale samangochita chabe Perekani ma logo a Mulungu, koma kwenikweni is ma logo a Mulungu.13 Potero, akuwonetsa ma logo a Mulungu m'njira yakuti "Amaposa chilichonse chomwe chinanenedwa mu OT kapena LXX [Septuagint]." 14

Dr. HA Kennedy anamaliza motero “Logos hypothesis yokha, monga ikuwonekera mu Philo, ndi yodzaza ndi chisokonezo. Mosakayikira, mwina chifukwa china n'chakuti linachokera ku zinthu zina zosakanikirana, ziphunzitso za Plato, chikhulupiriro cha Asitoiki, ndi Chiyuda mmodzi. ” 15 Komabe paradigm iyi idakopa mwamphamvu olemba ambiri okhulupirira zaumulungu omwe adakhazikitsa maziko a Christology ya pambuyo pa Baibulo, kuphatikiza Justin Martyr, Clement waku Alexandria, ndi Origen.

Inde, monga wolemba katswiri wa Philo a David T. Runia alemba, “[C] amapweteketsa abambo. . .Ndinayamba kuona kuti Philo anali 'm'bale wachikhulupiriro' ndipo sanazengereze kutenga malingaliro ndi mitu yambiri m'malemba ake. ” 16

ZAKA ZA M'MA XNUMX

Justin Martyr (100 - 165 AD)

Justin Martyr adabadwira ku Palestina m'mabanja achikunja. Adaphunzira ndikuphunzitsa ngati wafilosofi wa Plato asadatembenuke kukhala Mkhristu azaka pafupifupi makumi atatu. Ngakhale amakumbukiridwa bwino chifukwa chofera m'manja mwa Roma, Justin adatenganso gawo lofunikira pakupanga chiphunzitso cha tchalitchi.

Amadziwika kuti ndi amene adapatsa mpingo Logos Chikhulupiriro, chomwe chiri chiphunzitso cha Kubadwanso Kwatsopano koyambirira kwa Baibulo. Makamaka, Justin amatanthauzira fayilo ya ma logos ya Yohane 1: 1-14 kukhala mzimu wodziwikiratu yemwe adavomera kukhala munthu polowa m'mimba mwa Maria.

Koma kumasulira uku kumasiyana ndi ma logo monga akuwonetsedwa mu Chihebri OT ndi Greek LXX omwe amakhala ngati maziko a mawu oyamba a Yohane. Dr. James Dunn ananenanso kuti "Chiyuda chisanadze Chikhristu sichimatipatsa chifukwa chenicheni choganizira kuti [Mawu ndi Nzeru za Mulungu] anali kumvedwa monga zochita za Mulungu m'modzi ndi m'chilengedwe chake." 17

The Dictionary of the New New Testament ndi Kukula Kwake, adasankha mmodzi wa Chikhristu Masiku Ano 1998 Mabuku a Chaka, amanenanso kuti "[T] akugwiritsa ntchito mawu a Johannine 'Word' (logos) omwe amayerekezera ndi a Wisdom, omwe nthawi zina amatchulidwa ngati miyambo ya m'Baibulo komanso pambuyo pa Baibulo." 18

Polemba mu chiheberi ichi, Yohane ayenera kuti anagwiritsa ntchito umunthu mofananamo pa Yohane 1: 1-13. Dunn akufotokoza, "Pomwe tinganene kuti nzeru zaumulungu zidakhala thupi mwa Khristu, sizitanthauza kuti Wisdom anali munthu waumulungu, kapena kuti Khristu yemweyo anali ndi Mulungu kale." 19 

Dr. Paul VM Flesher ndi Dr. Bruce Chilton, akatswiri mu Chiyuda ndi Chikhristu choyambirira, nawonso amachenjeza izi “Mawu oyamba ake sanena kuti Yesu anali ndi moyo, ngakhale kuti umaona kuti malotowo ndi osatha.” Iwo akunena kuti kutanthauzira kodziŵika kwa ma logo monga munthu amene analiko kale Yesu anali “mosonkhezeredwa ndi ziphunzitso za tchalitchi choyambirira chotsatira. ” 20

Ziphunzitso zaumulungu zotsatirazi makamaka zimachokera ku zomwe Justin ananena kuti ma logo a YHWH anali okhalapo kale. Justin apeza umboni pazonena zake mu nthano ya Plato:

ndipo zokambirana zokhudza thupi zokhudza Mwana wa Mulungu mu Timaeus wa Plato, pomwe akuti, 'Adamuyika modutsa m'chilengedwe chonse', adabwereka chimodzimodzi kwa Mose; pakuti m'malemba a Mose zafotokozedwa momwe pa nthawiyo, pamene Aisraeli adatuluka mu Aigupto ndipo adali m'chipululu, adagweramo ndi zilombo zapoizoni… ndi kuti Mose… adatenga mkuwa, nachipanga chifanizo cha mtanda … Zomwe Plato adawerenga, osamvetsetsa molondola, osazindikira kuti chinali mtanda, koma ndikuwutenga ngati wopingasa, adati mphamvu pafupi ndi Mulungu woyambayo idayikidwa mopanda chilengedwe ... [Plato] amapereka malo achiwiri a Logos omwe ali ndi Mulungu, yemwe adati adayikidwa mozungulira mlengalenga…

Justin Martyr, Kupepesa Koyamba,ch. LX

Justin akuti malembo achiheberi adalimbikitsa Plato kuti apange ma Logos omwe adalipo kale Timayo akaunti yopanga.21 Potengera izi "kuvomereza" nthano ya Plato, wopembedzerayo adakhazikitsa chiphunzitso chake chokhudzana ndi lingaliro lachi Greek lonena zakukhalako kwamoyo ndipo adalikulitsa ndi lingaliro la Philo loti Chipangano Chakale Angel wa AMBUYE ndi m'modzi mofanana ndi CHIPANGANO Chakale ma logos wa AMBUYE.

Inde, David Runia ananena kuti m'mabuku a Justin “Lingaliro la Logos ponse paŵiri asanakhale munthu ndi thupi lanyama. . .adapereka ngongole kwa Ayuda onse achiyuda komanso makamaka Philo. ” 22 Zotsatira zake, pamene Justin adawerenga mu Yohane 1 kuti logos yomwe idapanga zinthu zonse pambuyo pake "idakhala thupi" mwa Yesu, samawerenga kudzera mu zilembo zachihebri za logo yomwe idapangidwa kukhala munthu yemwe pambuyo pake adadzakhala munthu Yesu; m'malo mwake amamvetsetsa kuti zikutanthauza kuti Yesu adakhalapo kale kubadwa kwake ngati mngelo wakale wa AMBUYE asanadzisandutse munthu.23

Koma ziyenera kudziwika kuti Justin saganiza kuti Yesu adakhalako monga Yahweh. Mosiyana ndi zimenezo, Justin amaona Atate monga “Mulungu yekhayo wosabadwayo, wosaneneka,” 24 pomwe Yesu “Ndiye Mulungu chifukwa ndiye wobadwa woyamba wa zolengedwa zonse.” 25 Mwanjira ina, Justin amawona Yesu kudzera mu malingaliro a Plato a Mulungu wachiwiri komanso womvera:

Pali ananena kuti Mulungu wina ndi Ambuye [amene] amamvera Mlengi wa zinthu zonse; yemwenso amatchedwa Mngelo, chifukwa amalengeza kwa anthu chilichonse Wopanga zinthu zonse - amene palibenso Mulungu wina amene angafune kulengeza kwa iwo.26

Udindo wa Logos Christology wa Justin pakupanga chiphunzitso chachikulu chachikhristu sichingafanane. Abambo ambiri amtsogolo amtchalitchi, kuphatikiza Irenaeus, Tertullian, Hippolytus, ndi Eusebius waku Caesarea, amatha kunena zomwe Justin adachita kuti athandizire zolemba zawo zamulungu.

Christology yake ikadakhala maziko pomwe malingaliro onse amtsogolo okhudza umunthu wa Yesu Khristu adamangidwapo pamisonkhano yamatchalitchi pambuyo pake. Koma malingaliro a Justin onena za Khristu monga Mulungu wachiwiri komanso womvera pomaliza pake adzaweruzidwa kuti ndi ampatuko ndi chiphunzitso chomwecho chomwe adathandizira kupanga.

ZAKA ZATATU

Origen (185 - 251 AD)

Philip Schaff pa Origen

Wobadwira m'banja lachikhristu, Origen adalandira maphunziro apamwamba achi Greek omwe anali ozama mu ziphunzitso za Plato. Anapitiliza kuphunzitsa filosofi ku Alexandria, Egypt, ndipo pamapeto pake adakhala katswiri wachikhristu m'masiku ake. Origen amadziwika chifukwa chongoganizira chabe za malembo, kutsatira miyambo yofanizira yokhazikitsidwa ndi Philo. Ilaria LE Ramelli akulemba za kulumikizana pakati pa Philo ndi Origen:

Philo adakhudzidwa kwambiri kotero kuti Lemba la Mose ndi Chiphunzitso cha Plato zidalimbikitsidwa ndi Logos yomweyo mpaka kunena kuti Lemba limafotokozadi chiphunzitso chodziwika bwino cha Plato cha Maganizo. . Ndizofunikira, koma osadabwitsa, kuti nkhani ya Philo posakhalitsa idatengedwa ndi Origen. . . Filo anamvetsa Malemba Achihebri monga chiphunzitso chophiphiritsira cha Plato. Ndipo Origen adatsata mapazi ake.

Ilaria LE Ramelli, 'Philo as Origen's Declared Model', p. 5

Origen adalimbikitsa lingaliro la Plato loti miyoyo yonse ya anthu idalipo kale ngati anthu anzeru omwe adagwa kuchokera kumwamba ndikulowa m'mimba kuti abadwe m'thupi. Miyoyo iyi imadzabadwanso kwina kuchokera kumunthu wina kupita ku wina mpaka, kudzera m'malingaliro achinsinsi, pamapeto pake adakwera kumwamba. Pachitsanzo ichi, miyoyo yonse (kuphatikiza Satana) pamapeto pake idzawomboledwa.27

Ndi Origen yemwe adayambitsa lingaliro lotchedwa the Mbadwo Wamuyaya wa Mwana. Chipilala cha chiphunzitso cha Utatu chimapangitsa kusintha kwakukulu pamalingaliro a Justin kuti Yesu anabadwa ndi Mulungu asanakhale munthu koyambirira kwa chilengedwe. Origen anaganiza kuti Yesu konse anali ndi chiyambi. Liwu loti "kubadwa" likhoza kutambasulidwa kutanthauza nthawi yopanda malire, kotero kuti Yesu ali "wobadwa" kwamuyaya mpaka lero momwemo kuti sangamvetsetsedwe:

. . . Mbadwo wake ndi wamuyaya ndi kwamuyaya. . . 28

Chifukwa chokhazikika mu sayansi ya Plato, lingaliro la Origen loti Mwana wobadwayo anali ndi chiyambi "choyambira" lidatchuka m'malo ena a tchalitchi cha Agiriki. Koma lingaliro ili silinavomerezedwe ndi onse, ndipo pamapeto pake likhala chiwonetsero chotsutsana pamakangano azachipembedzo a Christological azaka zotsatira.

Origen iyemwini akanadzasinthidwa pambuyo pake kuti ndi wopanduka ku Fifth Ecumenical Council paziphunzitso zina zomwe zinali mgulu la ntchitoyi. Mbadwo Wamuyaya wa Mwana. 29

Tertullian (160 - 225 AD)

Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus adabadwira ku Carthage, Africa. Wokhala ndi moyo nthawi imodzi ndi Origen, Tertullian anali katswiri wamaphunziro azaumulungu komanso wolemba waluso. Iye anali wafilosofi woyamba wachilatini wachikhristu kupeka mawu achipembedzo akuti "Utatu" ndikuphunzitsa chiphunzitso chovomerezeka.30 Malingaliro a Tertullian, omangidwa pa Logos Christology a m'zaka za zana loyamba, ali ndi mawu ambiri omwe amapezeka muzikhulupiriro zovomerezeka.

Komabe Tertullian sanalingalire za Utatu wofanana, wamuyaya, wofunikira. M'malo mwake adalingalira za wosiyana Utatu momwe Mulungu ndi wosiyana ndi Mwana komanso Mzimu Woyera. Kwa Tertullian, panali nthawi yomwe Mwana kunalibe: “Iye sakanakhoza kukhala Atate asanabadwe kwa Mwana, kapena Woweruza asanachimwe. Komabe, panali nthawi pamene panalibe tchimo limodzi ndi Iye, kapena Mwana. ” 31

Pambuyo pake mabungwe amatchalitchi sanasangalale ndi lingaliro la Tertullian la Utatu. Pulogalamu ya New Catholic Encyclopedia zolemba: "M'magawo angapo azaumulungu, malingaliro a Tertullian, ndiosavomerezeka konse." 32 Chifukwa chake munthu amene adalowetsa chiphunzitso cha Utatu muzochitika zamulungu anaweruzidwa kuti ndi wachipembedzo malinga ndi chiphunzitso chake chomaliza.

ZAKA ZA M'MAI

Kutsutsana kwa Arian (318 - 381 AD)

Gawo lomaliza laulendo wopita kuchiphunzitso chachitatu cha Utatu lidachitika pazaka 60 mzaka za zana lachinayi (318 - 381 AD). Zinakhudza mkangano wotchuka wotchedwa Arian Controversy. Pomwe gawo ili la mbiriyakale yamatchalitchi likukambidwa mu Chikhristu chachikulu, Arius amaponyedwa ngati nkhandwe atavala zovala zankhosa, poyesa kupusitsa chiphunzitso chokhazikitsidwa chachipembedzo ndi ziphunzitso zabodza. Koma izi zikuwoneka kuti ndikupotoza kwakukulu kwa chowonadi.

Mkhalidwe wazamulungu kumayambiriro kwa zaka za zana lachinayi udali wovuta. Chifukwa cha kuzunzidwa kwa Roma posachedwa, tchalitchicho sichinali ngati thupi lokhala ndi ziphunzitso chimodzi, koma ngati gulu lotayirira la misonkhano yodziyimira pawokha. Pakadali pano malingaliro ambiri osiyana siyana onena za Khristu adachokera pakulingalira kuti Yesu adalipo kale kubadwa kwake. Gulu lirilonse linali lokhutiritsidwa mofananamo kuti anali olondola ndipo anadzudzula mwamphamvu otsutsana nawo kukhala opanduka.33

Malingaliro ena ongoyerekeza za umunthu wa Khristu adachokera ku Alexandria, Egypt, komwe kunali malingaliro anzeru akale komwe Philo ndi Origen amaphunzitsako. Bishopu wotchedwa Alexander adatsogolera tchalitchichi mumzinda wotchuka wapa doko, ndipo wogwira ntchito pansi pake anali wansembe wachikulire waku Libya wotchedwa Arius.

Chimene chimayambitsa kusamvana pakati pa Arius ndi bishopu wake ndi momwe amafotokozera mawuwo wobadwa. Arius adatsutsa izi popeza kuti Atate yekha ndiye osabadwa, Atate ndiye gwero lokhalo lazinthu zonse zomwe zilipo. Mwanayo sangakhale wamuyaya chifukwa izi zikutanthauza kuti ali wosabadwa, kupanga awiri magwero osabadwa a chilichonse m'malo amodzi. 

Pogwirizana ndi tchalitchi cha m'zaka za zana lachiwiri, Arius adati mawu oti "wobadwa" amafunikira chiyambi. Adanenanso kuti kukhalapo kwa Mwanayo kudayamba pomwe adabadwa ndi Atate atatsala pang'ono kulenga dziko lapansi. Bishopu Alexander, komabe, adavomereza zonena za Origen zakuti Mwanayo akhoza kubadwanso by Mulungu amakhalanso wamuyaya ndi Mulungu kudzera mwa "kubala" kwachinsinsi komwe kumakhala kwamuyaya.

Alesandro atazindikira kuti wansembe wakeyo akutsutsana ndi mfundoyi, adatumiza kalata yoyipa kwa bishopu mnzake, yolimbikitsa kuti achotse Arius ndi omutsatira ngati amuna omwe anali oyipa chifukwa chokana chiphunzitso cha Egengeneration Chamuyaya: "Ndadzuka kuti ndikusonyezeni kusakhulupirika kwa iwo omwe amati panali nthawi yomwe Mwana wa Mulungu kulibe." 34 Izi zidatchula omwe adathandizira kale chiphunzitso cha Utatu monga Tertullian ndi Justin Martyr ngati anthu oyipa komanso opanda chikhulupiriro, chifukwa anali ndi malingaliro awa kale Arius asanafike.

Poyankha chidani ichi, Arius adayesa kuyanjananso ndi bishopu wake mwa kumulembera kalata. Mwaulemu adabwerezanso malingaliro ake ndipo adati ndichikhulupiriro chomwe adalandira “Zochokera kwa makolo athu,” mwina akunena za amuna ngati Justin ndi Tertullian. Koma Alexander adakana izi ndipo m'malo mwake adayitanitsa khonsolo yam'deralo mu 318 AD, pomwe atsogoleri amayenera kusaina chikalata chonena za Origenist Christology. Anthu amene anakana ankathamangitsidwa.35

Komabe pakadali pano mu mbiriyakale yamatchalitchi, kunalibe malingaliro "ovomerezeka" pamakhalidwe abwinobwino a Khristu. Dr. RPC Hanson anena izi “Kukonda Alexander kwa Origen kunabwera chifukwa cha kusankha kwake, osati kupitiriza miyambo ya malodza ake.” 36 Posagwirizana ndi ziphunzitso zodziwika bwino koma bishopu Alexander, Arius anakana kusaina chikalatacho ndipo pambuyo pake anachotsedwa. Koma omutsatira pambuyo pake adachita khonsolo yawo kuti amubwezeretse. Izi zidayamba ndi makhonsolo angapo omwe adawopseza kuti agawanitsa tchalitchi ndi ufumuwo.

Constantine ndi Council of Nicaea

Constantine Wamkulu anali mfumu ya Roma panthawi yamikangano ya Arian. Pa nthawi ya ulamuliro wake wachiwawa anapha apongozi ake, apongozi ake atatu, mphwake, mwana wake wamwamuna woyamba kubadwa, ndi mkazi wake. Anali munthu wopeza mwayi wokha yemwe adatengera Chikhristu atangolota maloto akuwona mtanda kumwamba ndipo adauzidwa kuti chizindikirochi chingapatse nkhondo.37

Poyamba Constantine adayesetsa kuthetsa kusamvana komwe kunali pakati pa Arius ndi Alexander mwa kumulembera kalata. Mfumuyo sinkaona kusamvanako ngati nkhani yaikulu yaumulungu; M'malo mwake, cholinga chake chachikulu chinali kuphatikiza ufumu womwe unayamba kugawikana mwachangu m'zipembedzo. Chifukwa chake, pomwe kuyesa kusokoneza mtendere kudalephera, adayitanitsa Council of Nicaea mu 325 AD.

Osewerawa anali ochepa - pafupifupi 300 mwa ma 1800 omwe adayitanidwa kumsonkhanowo adakhalako, ndipo ambiri mwa iwo anali othandizira Alexander.38 Pamapeto pa msonkhanowu, Constantine adalankhula kuti alimbikitse opezekapo kuti avotere Origenist Christology ya bishopuyo. Anapanga mlandu wake polemba olemba monga Virgil, Cicero, komanso wansembe wachikunja dzina lake Erythraean Sybil. Koma umboni wake womwe Plato anali Timaeus:

Mbiri imatsimikizira kuti Khonsolo ya Nicaea idavotera lingaliro la mfumu-lovomerezeka la Bishopu Alexander. Koma mawu achikhulupiriro - omwe amagwiritsa ntchito mawu otsutsana kwambiri komanso pachiyambi cha Gnostic kutuloji (kutanthauza "chinthu chomwecho") - adazisiya zili zotseguka kumasulira mosiyanasiyana.39

Pomaliza, Plato mwiniwake, wofatsa kwambiri komanso woyengeka kwambiri kuposa onse, yemwe adayesa kutulutsa malingaliro amunthu kuchokera kuzinthu zomveka mpaka zanzeru komanso zamuyaya, ndikuwaphunzitsa kuti azilakalaka zonamizira, poyambirira adalengeza, ndi chowonadi, Mulungu wokwezeka pamwamba chofunikira chilichonse, koma kwa iye [Plato] adawonjezeranso chachiwiri, ndikuwasiyanitsa ndi ziwerengero ziwiri, ngakhale onse anali ndi ungwiro umodzi, komanso kukhala Mulungu Wachiwiri kuyambira woyamba. . Potero, chifukwa chake, ndi chifukwa chomveka, titha kunena kuti pali Munthu m'modzi amene chisamaliro chake ndi chisamaliro chake chili pazinthu zonse, ngakhale Mulungu Mawu, amene adalamula zinthu zonse; koma Mawu pokhala Mulungu iyemwini alinso Mwana wa Mulungu.

Oration wa Constantine ku msonkhano wa oyera (Eusebius)

Zotsatira zake, misonkhano yatsopano yazipembedzo yomwe idakumana mzaka zotsatira. Izi zinaphatikizapo khonsolo iwiri ya Rimini-Seleucia mu 359 AD, yomwe idayimilidwa bwino kuposa Nicaea ndi mabishopu pafupifupi 500 opezekapo onse, komabe adavotera Visigoths mawonedwe.40 Zowonadi, makhonsolo ambiri otsatira Nicaea adavota motsutsana Udindo wa Nicaea. Constantine iye mwini amasintha malingaliro ake kangapo pankhaniyi ndipo pamapeto pake ali pabedi lakufa anasankha kubatizidwa ndi wansembe wa Arian.41

Athanasius (296 - 373 AD)

Athanasius anali wa ku Aigupto waku Aigupto yemwe adayamba maphunziro ake ngati m'modzi mwa madikoni a Bishop Alexander. Zaka zitatu kuchokera ku khonsolo ya Nicaea, adalowa m'malo mwa Alexander ngati bishopu wamkulu wa tchalitchi cha Alexandria. Athanasius adamenyera nkhondo molimba mtima kuti Christology womulangiza ndiye wamkulu ndipo chifukwa chake amapatsidwa ulemu waukulu pakugonjetsedwa kwa Arianism kumapeto kwa zaka za zana lachinayi.42

Mu mbiriyi Kulimbana Ndi Onse Athu, Dr. John Piper akunena kuti Athanasius amadziwika kuti ndiye Bambo wa Chipembedzo Chachitatu.43 Timauzidwa kuti am'ndende onse a Athanasius - zotsatira zakumangidwa pamilandu monga ziwawa, kubera, komanso kuwukira - anali kuzunza kopanda chilungamo kwa munthu wosalakwa. Piper amutcha “Wothawathawa wa Mulungu,”44 ndipo amamuwonetsa pomangotchula okha omwe amamuthandiza, monga Gregory waku Nyssa:

Kuyamikiridwa kotereku kumapereka chithunzithunzi chodziwika kuti Athanasius adangopikisana ndi atumwi okha pakuopa kwake. Komabe, tikupeza mbali ina ya mwamunayo m'modzi mwa zomwe Piper adatchulapo,46 kafukufuku wolemekezedwa kwambiri pamsonkhano wamatchalitchi wazaka za zana lachinayi wotchedwa The Sakani Chiphunzitso chachikhristu cha Mulungu  wolemba Dr. RPC Hanson:

Kuzunza kwa Athanasius kwa omwe amamutsutsa, ngakhale kulola kuti awazunze, nthawi zina kumafika pachisokonezo ... M'modzi mwa omwe adalemba Festal Letters, pomwe amalimbikitsa gulu lake kuti lisadzidane, akuwonetsa chidani chakupha Za Ayuda ndi Arians. . Atakhala pachishalo, adatsimikiza kuti awatsendere ndi dzanja lamphamvu, ndipo sanasamale konse za njira zomwe amagwiritsa ntchito. Tsopano titha kuwona chifukwa chake, kwazaka zosachepera makumi awiri pambuyo pa 335, panalibe Bishopu waku Eastern amene amalankhula ndi Athanasius. Anapezedwa wolungama pamakhalidwe onyansa mchiwonetsero chake. Kutsimikiza kwake sikunali kokhudzana ndi chiphunzitso. Palibe mpingo womwe ungayembekezere kulekerera machitidwe ngati awa kwa m'modzi mwa abishopu ake.

- RPC Hanson, Sakani Chiphunzitso chachikhristu cha Mulungu, tsa. 243, 254-255

M'mutu wonse wa buku lake, Hanson analemba za “Khalidwe la Athanasius” lochititsa mantha.47 Apa tikupeza kuti Athanasius nthawi zambiri ankanyoza omutsutsa ndikunamizira zikhulupiriro zawo. Sanalinso ndi mantha akamagwiritsa ntchito nkhanza kuti akwaniritse zolinga zake, kuzunza gulu lotsutsana nalo lotchedwa Ameliti pakuwamanga ndi kuwamenya, komanso kutsekera m'modzi mwa mabishopu awo mosungira nyama kwa masiku.48

Koma fumbi litakhazikika, ngakhale Bambo wa Chipembedzo Chachitatu sangaweruzidwe mokoma ndi mtundu womaliza wachikhulupiriro chake. Hanson akunena kuti "Athanasius analibe lingaliro loti Mulungu ali Atatu mosiyana ndi momwe Mulungu alili Mmodzi, ndipo adavomereza kuti Mulungu ndi mmodzi mwa anthu wamba ku Serdica omwe malinga ndi malingaliro a chiphunzitso cha Cappadocian anali ampatuko." 49

Atatu a ku Kapadokiya

Atangomwalira Athanasius mu 373 AD, akatswiri azaumulungu atatu ochokera ku Cappadocia m'chigawo cha Asia Minor adatsiriza chiphunzitso cha Utatu: Gregory waku Nazianzus, Basil waku Caesarea, ndi mchimwene wa Basil, a Gregory waku Nyssa. Amuna awa adapanga njira yomwe Mzimu Woyera adaphatikizidwira mu Umulungu, kutipatsa lingaliro la Mulungu ngati atatu mwa m'modzi.

Kupangidwa kwatsopano kwa lingaliro ili kukuwonekera ndi kuvomereza kwa Gregory waku Nazianzus kuti “Mwa anzeru pakati pathu, ena adamuwona ngati chochita, ena ngati cholengedwa, ena ngati Mulungu; " 50

Lingaliro la "utatu" Mulungu woperekedwa ndi atatu a ku Kapadokiya lidalidi lingaliro latsopano lomwe lidachokera ku filosofi yachi Greek. Hanson akulemba za Akapadokiya kuti:

Sipangakhale chikayikiro chilichonse ponena za ngongole ya [Gregory wa Nyssa] ku nthanthi za Plato. . .Gregory amagwirizana mwamphamvu ndi mchimwene wake Basil komanso dzina lake la Nazianzus, kuti tidziwe ndipo tiyenera kukhulupirira kuti Mulungu ndi "ousia" m'modzi ndi "hypostases" atatu. . Ngakhale kuli kwakuti Gregory waphatikiza malingaliro anzeru zamasiku ano mu chiphunzitso chake, ali wotsimikiza kuvomereza kuti ali ndi ngongole ku filosofi yachikunja ndipo amakonda kudzinyenga yekha (monga pafupifupi onse omwe adalipo kale komanso anthu a m'nthawi yake) kukhulupirira kuti afilosofi anali kuyembekezeredwa mu malingaliro awo kudzera mwa Mose ndi aneneri.

- RPC Hanson, Sakani Chiphunzitso Chachikhristu cha Mulungu, tsa. 719, 721-722

Wolamulira mfumu Theodosius adapeza lingaliro la nthanthi la Mulungu mwa atatu mwa m'modzi losangalatsa. Iye adapanga cholinga chake choletsa ndi kukakamiza chipembedzo chilichonse - kuphatikiza magulu ena achikristu - omwe sagwirizana ndi zamulungu zake zatsopano. Kotero, pa February 27, 380 AD, iye ndi mafumu ena awiri olamulira achiroma adapereka chigamulo chogwirizana isanafike kupita ku Khonsolo ya Constantinople, osasiya kukayikira konse momwe bungwelo lotsatira lidzavotera:

Kutsatira lamuloli, Theodosius anathamangitsa bishopu wotsogolera ku Constantinople ndikumulowa m'malo mwa Cappadocian Gregory waku Nazianzus. Atakonzekera atsogoleri achipembedzo kuti agwirizane ndi zomwe amaphunzira, Theodosius adayitanitsa Khonsolo yotchuka ya Constantinople mu 381 AD. Zotsatira zosapeŵeka zidalimbikitsa mtundu womaliza wa Utatu kukhala chiphunzitso chovomerezeka, makamaka chifukwa Theodosius adakhazikitsa lamulo lachi Roma. Zachikunja komanso zikhulupiriro zachikhristu zomwe sizimagwirizana ndi chiphunzitso cha Utatu chomwe changopangidwa kumene tsopano zidali zosaloledwa ndipo olakwira adalangidwa mwankhanza.51

POMALIZA

Pafupifupi zaka mazana atatu zoyambirira za tchalitchi - motalikirapo kuposa United States of America - sikunakhalepo lingaliro la Mulungu wautatu. Mtundu wapano wa chiphunzitsochi sunangosinthika pang'onopang'ono, koma udasinthika mwanjira yoti amuna omwe adapereka zomangira zake aweruzidwa kuti ndi ampatuko ndi mtundu womaliza wachikhulupiriro. Wolemba mbiri RPC Hanson ananena molondola kuti makhonsolo oyambirira a tchalitchi anali “osati nkhani yodzitchinjiriza, koma kusaka chiphunzitso, kusaka kochitidwa ndi njira yoyesera komanso yolakwika.52

Chikhristu chachikulu chaika chikhulupiriro chachikulu pamalingaliro anzeru za amuna omwe adakhala zaka mazana ambiri pambuyo pa Khristu. Zimaganiziridwa kuti Mzimu Woyera adawatsogolera kuti apange chiphunzitso cha Utatu, koma monga a Joseph Lynch akunenera, a "Mabungwe a [c] nthawi zina anali osakhazikika ngakhalenso achiwawa zomwe sizinakwaniritse mgwirizano womwe umaganiziridwa kuti ukupereka Mzimu Woyera." 53 

Yesu anatiphunzitsa momwe tingazindikirire chiphunzitso choona ndi chiphunzitso chonyenga pamene anati: “Mudzawazindikira ndi zipatso zawo.” (Mateyu 7:16). Zipatso za Mzimu Woyera zikuphatikizapo chikondi, chimwemwe, mtendere, kuleza mtima, kukoma mtima, ubwino, kukhulupirika, kufatsa, ndi kudziletsa (Agal 5: 22-23). Nzeru ya Mzimu Woyera ndi “yamtendere, yaulere, yotseguka pa kulingalira, yodzala chifundo ndi zipatso zabwino, yopanda tsankhu ndiponso yoona mtima. ” (James 3: 27)Mosiyana ndi izi, Hilary waku Poitiers amatengera mabungwe amatchalitchi motere:

Pamene tikulimbana ndi mawu, kufunsira za zinthu zachilendo, kutenga mwayi pazinthu zosamveka bwino, kutsutsa olemba, kumenya nkhondo pamafunso achipani, kukhala ndi zovuta kuvomerezana, ndikukonzekera kuti tithandizane wina ndi mnzake, pali munthu wochepa amene ali wa Khristu. . Timazindikira zikhulupiliro pofika chaka kapena mwezi, timasintha malingaliro athu, timaletsa zosintha zathu, timasinthira zoletsa zathu. Chifukwa chake, timadzudzula ena mwa ife eni, kapena tokha mwa ena, ndipo pamene tikulumana ndikudya wina ndi mnzake, tikufanana kuti tidyana.

Hilary waku Poitiers, Malonda Const. ii. 4,5 (~ 360 AD)

Komanso, chiphunzitso cha Utatu ndichiphunzitso cha pambuyo pa Baibulo chozikika mu filosofi yachi Greek. Chipangano Chakale sichinachiphunzitse, Yesu sanachiphunzitse, atumwi sanachiphunzitse, ndipo mpingo woyambirira sunachiphunzitse. Chifukwa chake ndife anzeru kuunikanso mosamalitsa chiphunzitsochi motsutsana ndi upangiri wathunthu wa malembo.

Kutumizidwa ndi chilolezo kuchokera https://thetrinityontrial.com/doctrinal-evolution/


  1. NET Bible Commentary imati: “M'mawu ake achiisrayeli akale kuti zochulukazo zimamveka bwino ngati zikunena za Mulungu ndi bwalo lake lakumwamba (see 1 Kgs 22:19-22; Job 1:6-12; 2:1-6; Isa 6:1-8)”.
    https://net.bible.org/#!bible/Genesis+1:26, Mawu Akumunsi # 47
  2. As Hastings Dictionary ya Baibulo zolemba, mawu elohim (Mulungu) m'Chipangano Chakale amagwiritsidwa ntchito osati kwa Yahweh kokha, komanso kwa milungu yachikunja, zamatsenga, komanso anthu. Mwachitsanzo Eks 7: 1, Ex 21: 6, 22: 8-9; Sal 82: 1, cp. Yoh 10:34.
    https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/hdb/g/god.html
  3. Otanthauzira amagawika ngati Masalmo awa ndiulosi chabe kapena poyambilira adatumizidwa kwa Mfumu ya m'mbuyomu ya David ndipo pambuyo pake idagwiritsidwa ntchito kwa Khristu. Mosasamala kanthu, kuti mfumu iyi ali Mulungu amene amamudzoza ndi kumudalitsa (vesi 2, 7) amauza owerenga kuti mutuwo elohim akunena za udindo wake monga nthumwi yokwezeka ya Yahweh.
  4. Walter Bruggemann ndi William H. Bellinger Jr., Masalimo, p.214.
  5. Kuti Yesu ali ndi Mulungu kwafotokozedwa momveka bwino m'mavesi ambiri, kuphatikiza Mat 27:46, Joh 17: 3, Joh 20:17, Rom 15: 6, 2 Cor 1: 3, 2 Co 11:31, Aef 1: 3, Aef 1:17, Ahe 1: 9, 1 Pe 1: 3, Chiv 1: 6, 3: 2, Chiv 3:12. Kuti Mulungu wa Yesu ndiye Mulungu m'modzi zimatsimikiziridwa ndi Yesu iyemwini pa Yohane 17: 3 ndi pozindikiritsa Paulo za Atate kuti onse ndi Mulungu Mmodzi ndi Mulungu wa Yesu. Onani mwachitsanzo 1 Akorinto 8: 6, cp. Aroma 15: 6.
  6. mbale, Timayogawo. 34a-34c.
  7.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metempsychosis
  8. Alfred Plummer, Uthenga Wabwino Wolemba Yohane, tsa. 61
  9. Philo, Munthu Wonse Wabwino Ndiye Mfulu
    http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book33.htmlMwachitsanzo, Gen. 15: 1, 1 Maf. 13:18, 1 Maf. 16:12, 1 Maf 17:24, 2 Maf 1:17, 1 Sa 3: 1, Amosi 8:12. Ophunzira Baibulo ambiri amavomereza zomwe Alfred Plummer ananena kuti "m'Chipangano Chakale timapeza Mawu kapena Nzeru ya Mulungu yotchulidwa ngati munthu," m'malo moyerekeza munthu wachiwiri. (St. John, Cambridge School for Bibles, tsamba 61.)
  10. Philo, Yemwe Ali Wolowa Zinthu Zauzimu, ch XLVIII, gawo 233ff.
  11. Philo, Mafunso ndi Mayankho mu Genesis II, Gawo. 62.
  12. Ngakhale lingaliro ili mwachangu lidasankhidwa ndi abambo oyamba ampingo, ndizowonekeratu kuti kulibe ku NT.
  13. James DG Dunn, Christology pakupanga, tsa. 216. Mabotolo anga.
  14.  HA Kennedy, Zopereka za Philo ku Chipembedzo, mas. 162-163.
  15. David T. Runia, Philo ndi Kuyamba kwa Maganizo Achikhristu.
  16. James Dunn, Christology pakupanga, tsa. 220. Mabotolo anga.
  17. Dictionary ya The New New Testament & Its Developments, eds. Martin, Davids, "Chikhristu ndi Chiyuda: Magawo A Njira", 3.2. Johannine Christology.
  18. James Dunn, Christology pakupanga, p. 212.
  19. Paul VM Flesher ndi Bruce Chilton, Targums: Chiyambi Chovuta, p. 432
  20. Palibe umboni uliwonse wosonyeza kuti Plato anakumanapo ndi Torah. Komanso sakanakumana ndi mawu kuwoloka munkhani ya njoka yamkuwa, chifukwa mawu achiheberi pa Numeri 21: 8-9 ndi nec, kutanthauza chikwangwani, cholembera, kapena chizindikiro. Njoka sinayikidwe pamtanda koma a mtengo.
  21. David T. Runia, Philo mu Zolemba Zoyambirira Zachikhristu, p. 99.
  22. James Dunn akuti mu NT "Wolemba kwa Ahebri akutsutsa malingalirowo mwamphamvu - 'Ndi mngelo uti amene Mulungu adalankhulapo kale. . . ' (Aheb. 1.5). ” James DG Dunn, Christology mu Kupanga, p. 155
  23. Chichikogusa, ch. CXXVI
  24. Chichikogusa, ch. CXXV
  25. Kukambirana ndi Trypho,ch. LVI
  26. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_reconciliation
  27. Chiyambi, De Principiis, bk I, ch II, gawo 4
  28. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf214.xii.ix.html
  29. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tertullian
  30. Tertullian, PA Kulimbana ndi Hermogenes, ChiII.
    http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/tertullian13.html
  31. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tertullian
  32. Joseph H. Lynch, Chikhristu choyambirira: Mbiri Yachidule, p. 62
  33. Makalata onena za Arianism ndi Deposition of Arius
  34. Timangodziwa za kalatayo kudzera mwa woteteza Alexander, Athanasius, yemwe adaipanganso mu ntchito yake De Synodis ndipo anawatcha kuti “masanzi m'mitima yawo yosakhulupirika.” Mwawona Athanasius, De Synodis
  35. RPC Hanson, Kusaka Kwa Chiphunzitso Chachikhristu cha Mulungu, p. 145
  36. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_the_Great
  37. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Council_of_Nicaea
  38. In Mbiri ya Mpingo Wachikhristu, Philip Schaff akuti mawuwo kutuloji anali “Palibenso dzina lina la m'Baibulo lopanda tanthauzo la 'utatu'” ndipo kwenikweni idagwiritsidwa ntchito koyamba ndi magulu ampatuko a Gnostic monga ma Valentinians. Mwawona http://www.bible.ca/history/philip-schaff/3_ch09.htm#_ednref102.
  39. http://orthodoxwiki.org/Council_of_Rimini
  40. Constantine anabatizidwa asanamwalire ndi wansembe wa Arian Eusebius waku Nicomedia.
    http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05623b.htm
  41. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athanasius_of_Alexandria
  42. John Piper, Kulimbana ndi Zathu Zonse, p. 42
  43. Wobera, p. 55
  44. Gregory waku Nyssa (wotchulidwa ndi John Piper mu Kulimbana ndi Zathu Zonse, p. 40).
  45. Piper akutchula Dr. Hanson patsamba 42.
  46. Hanson, tsamba 239-273
  47. Hanson, p. 253
  48. Hanson, p. 870
  49. https://www.newadvent.org/fathers/310231.htm
  50. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_persecution_of_paganism_under_Theodosius_I
  51. Hanson, mas. Xix-xx / RE Rubenstein, Pamene Yesu Anakhala Mulungu, tsa. 222-225
  52. Joseph H. Lynch, Chikhristu choyambirira: Mbiri Yachidule, p. 147

 


Zogwirizana

 

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