Chipangano Chatsopano Cholembedwa m'Chigiriki
Chipangano Chatsopano Cholembedwa m'Chigiriki

Chipangano Chatsopano Cholembedwa m'Chigiriki

Zolemba za Atumwi za Chipangano Chatsopano zinalembedwa m'Chigiriki

 Kuwonjezeka kwaumboni ndikuti zolembedwa pamipangano ya Chipangano Chatsopano zidachokera ku Chi Greek ndikungosiyanitsa kwa Mateyu ndi Aheberi. 

Katswiri wotchuka FF Bruce, mu Mabuku ndi Zolemba

“Chilankhulo choyenera kwambiri kufalitsa uthengawu mwachidziwikire chidzakhala chodziwika kwambiri kumayiko onse, ndipo chilankhulochi chinali chofunitsitsa kulankhulidwa. Chinali chilankhulo chachi Greek, chomwe, panthawi yomwe uthenga wabwino unayamba kulengezedwa pakati pa mafuko onse, chinali chilankhulo chadziko lonse lapansi, cholankhulidwa osati mozungulira madoko a Aegean okha komanso ku Eastern Mediterranean komanso madera ena. Chigiriki sichinali chilankhulo chachilendo kwa tchalitchi cha atumwi ngakhale m'masiku omwe chinali chokha ku Yerusalemu, chifukwa mamembala a tchalitchi choyambirira cha ku Yerusalemu anali ndi Ayuda olankhula Chigiriki komanso Ayuda olankhula Chiaramu. Akhristu achiyuda olankhula Chigiriki (kapena Achihelene) amatchulidwa mu Machitidwe 6: 1, pomwe timawerenga kuti adadandaula za chisamaliro chosalingana chomwe chidaperekedwa kwa amasiye am'gulu lawo motsutsana ndi achiheberi kapena achiyuda olankhula Chiaramu. Pofuna kuthetsa vutoli amuna asanu ndi awiri adasankhidwa kuti aziyang'anira, ndikuwona kuti (kuweruza ndi mayina awo) onse asanu ndi awiriwo anali olankhula Chigiriki ”(p.49).

~

"Tikhoza kunena kuti, Paul, amabwera pafupifupi pakati pa miyambo yakanenedwe komanso zolembalemba zambiri. Epistle to the Hebrews and the First Epistle of Peter ndi ntchito zolembedwa zenizeni, ndipo zambiri mwa mawu awo ziyenera kumvedwa pothandizidwa ndi buku lotanthauzira mawu wakale m'malo motengera zomwe sizilembedwa. Mauthenga Abwino ali ndi Chigiriki cha chilankhulo chawo, monga tingayembekezere, popeza amafotokoza kukambirana kwakukulu ndi anthu wamba. Izi ndi zoona ngakhale mu Uthenga Wabwino wa Luka. Luka iyemwini anali katswiri wolemba kalembedwe kabwino, monga zikuwonekera m'mavesi anayi oyamba a Uthenga Wabwino wake, koma mu Uthenga Wabwino ndi Machitidwe amasintha machitidwe ake kuti afanane ndi zilembo ndi zochitika zomwe amawonetsa "(p.55-56).

New Bible Dictionary

"Chilankhulo chomwe zolembedwa za Chipangano Chatsopano zidasungidwa ndi 'Greek yodziwika' (koine), yomwe inali chilankhulo cha mayiko aku Near East ndi Mediterranean munthawi ya Aroma" (p. 713)

~

“Popeza tinafotokoza mwachidule mikhalidwe yonse ya Chigiriki cha Chipangano Chatsopano, titha kufotokoza mwachidule wolemba aliyense. Maliko adalembedwa m'Chigiriki cha munthu wamba. . . . Matthew ndi Luke aliyense amagwiritsa ntchito zolemba za Markan, koma aliyense amakonza zomwe adakonza, ndikusenda mawonekedwe ake. . . Kalembedwe kamene Mateyo sanasiyanitse ndi ka Luka - analemba ka Greek ka grammatical, moledzera koma kameneka, koma ndi Septuagintalisms odziwika; Luke amatha kuchita bwino kwambiri kwakanthawi kambiri pachikhalidwe cha Attic, koma alibe mphamvu zowathandizira; amataya nthawi yayitali kubwerera ku magwero ake kapena ku koine yodzichepetsa kwambiri.

~

“Paulo alemba Chigiriki champhamvu, ndi kalembedwe kakang'ono pakati pa kalata yake yoyambirira ndi Makalata ake atsopano. . . . James ndi ine Peter onse akuwonetsa kuyanjana kwakale ndi kalembedwe wakale, ngakhale m'Chigiriki choyambirira cha Chiyuda mungawonenso. Makalata a Johannine ndi ofanana kwambiri ndi Mauthenga Abwino mchilankhulo. . . Yuda ndi II Peter onse akuwonetsa wachi Greek wolimba mtima kwambiri. . . Apocalypse, monga tawonetsera, ndi sui genis mchilankhulo ndi mawonekedwe: mphamvu yake, mphamvu zake, ndi kupambana kwake, ngakhale kuli koyendera, sikungakanidwe ”(p. 715-716).

~

"Mwachidule, titha kunena kuti Chi Greek cha Chipangano Chatsopano chimadziwika ndi ife masiku ano ngati chilankhulo 'chomveka kwa anthu,' ndikuti chidagwiritsidwa ntchito mosiyanasiyana, koma mwamphamvu komanso mwamphamvu, kufotokoza m'makalata amenewa uthenga womwe kwa alaliki ake unali wofanana ndi wa m'Chipangano Chakale - uthenga wa Mulungu wamoyo, wokhudzidwa ndi ubale wabwino wa munthu ndi Iyemwini, wopereka kwa Iye njira yoyanjanitsira. ”

Luke-Machitidwe adalembedwa m'Chigiriki ku Alexandria

Malembo achi Greek amatsimikizira kuti Luka adalembedwa ku Alexandria (dera lolankhula Chigiriki)

Ma Colophons mu Greek unical K ndi minuscule 5, 9, 13, 29, 124 ndi 346 amalemba Uthenga Wabwino wake mpaka chaka cha 15 kuchokera Ascension, zalembedwa ku Alexandria.

Mabaibulo akale a Chisuriya (Chiaramu Peshitta) amatsimikizira kuti Luka ndi zochita zake zinalembedwa m'Chigiriki ku Alexandria

Pamipukutu yokwana khumi ya Peshitta muli mawu ofotokoza kuti Luka analemba Uthenga Wabwino ku Alexandria m'Chigiriki; zolemba zofanana zitha kupezeka m'mipukutu ya Boharic C1 ndi E1 + 2 omwe amafikira chaka cha 11 kapena 12 cha Claudis: 51-52 AD[1] [2] [3]

[1] Henry Frowde, Coptic Version ya NT mu Chilankhulo Chakumpoto, Vol. 1, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1898), liii, akutayika

[2] Philip E. Pusey ndi George H. Gwilliam eds. Tetraeuangelium santum justa simplicem Syrorum mtundu, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1901), p. 479

[3] Constantin von Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Grace, Vol. 1, (Leipzing: Adof Zima, 1589) p. 546

Kutanthauzira kofananako kwa Peschito, Luke ndi mawu oyamba, https://amzn.to/2WuScNA

Luka adaphunzitsidwa m'Chigiriki

Luka sing'anga, yemwe adalemba uthenga wabwino wa Luka komanso buku la Machitidwe, anali dokotala wophunzitsidwa bwino yemwe mwachiwonekere adaphunzitsidwa ntchito yake ku Alexandria, Egypt. Akulunjika uthenga wake kwa “Teofilo wopambana” (Luka 1: 3), monganso m'buku la Machitidwe (Machitidwe 1: 1). Theophilus, mosakayikira ndi liwu lachi Greek. Uthenga wabwino wa Luka ndi buku la Machitidwe mosakayikira zidalembedwa ndi Luka mchilankhulo chachi Greek. Luka anali kulembera makamaka olankhula Chigiriki, Akunja.

Luka Woyera. United Kingdom: H. Frowde, 1924. Lumikizani Buku

"Tikayang'ana mafunso ena achiwiri a kalembedwe kake komanso momwe amathandizira mitu yake, sitingachite chidwi ndi kukongola kwenikweni kwa uthenga wabwino wa Luka. Ali ndi lamulo lachi Greek chanzeru chomwe sichili ndi ena mwa alaliki ena. Monga chitsanzo cha kapangidwe koyera, mawu ake oyamba ndi malembedwe omalizidwa kwambiri omwe amapezeka mu Chipangano Chatsopano. Nkhani yake pano, komanso mu Machitidwe, imayenda mosavuta komanso chisomo chosayerekezeka ndi zolemba zina za Chipangano Chatsopano. Chodabwitsa ndichakuti Luka, yemwe amatha kulemba Mgiriki wabwino kwambiri mwa alaliki onse, ali ndi magawo omwe ali achihebri mu mzimu ndi chilankhulo kuposa china chilichonse chomwe chili mumauthenga ena. ” 

New Bible Dictionary (tsamba 758)

“Anthu ambiri amavomereza kuti Luka ndi amene analemba mabuku a Chipangano Chatsopano. Mawu ake oyamba akutsimikizira kuti adatha kulemba m'Chigiriki chosatsutsika, choyera, komanso cholemba. ”-. Anali Wamitundu… Kuchokera m'mabuku a Luka ndi Machitidwe, komanso kuchokera m'mabuku, zikuwonekeratu kuti Luka anali Mgiriki wophunzira kwambiri. ”

Chilatini cha 1 Clement chimatsimikizira Chigiriki cha Luka

Peter ndi Paul atangophedwa pomwe azunzo aku Neronia adachita zaka 65, Clement waku Roma adalembera kalata ku mpingo waku Korinto. Popeza adagwira mawu a pa Luka 6: 36-38 ndi 17: 2 m'kalata yake, mipingo yonse ya ku Roma komanso ku Korinto ayenera kuti anali atadziwa Uthenga Wabwinowu kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 60. Chifukwa chake, zolemba zakale zachiLatini zopezeka ndi Luka zimapereka kuyerekezera kofananira ndikufika pamalemba achigiriki oyamba a Uthenga Wabwinowu. 

Luke-Machitidwe akugwira mawu mu Greek Septuagint Old Testament

Mawu ogwidwa mu Chipangano Chakale mu Luka ndi Machitidwe adachokera ku Greek Septuagint. 

Machitidwe adalembedwa m'Chigiriki

Machitidwe, yemwe ndi wolemba mofanana ndi Luka, adalembedwa m'Chigiriki pazifukwa zomwe Luka adalembedwera. Kutchulidwa kwa Chihebri m'buku la Machitidwe makamaka kumachotsa Chiheberi monga chilankhulo choyambirira cha bukuli.

Yohane adalembedwa m'Chigiriki ku Efeso

Yohane adalembedwa ku Efeso (dera lachi Greek)

Irenaeus adalemba mu Book 11.1.1 of Against Heresies kuti mtumwi Yohane adalemba Uthenga wake ku Efeso (dera lachi Greek) ndikuti adakhala muulamuliro wa Trajan. (98 AD) Efeso anali pakati pa dera lolankhula Chigriki, ndipo Yohane anali kulembera Mpingo wonse, osati Ayuda okha ku Yerusalemu.

Eusebius akubwereza mawu a Irenaeus ponena za kulembedwa kwa uthenga wabwino, motere:

"Pomaliza, Yohane, wophunzira wa Ambuye, amene adatsamira pachifuwa pake, adayambanso kufalitsa uthenga wabwino, akukhala ku Efeso ku Asiya" (p. 211).

Zolembedwa Pamanja za Chiaramu zimatsimikizira kuti Yohane analemba Uthenga Wabwino m'Chigiriki ali ku Efeso

Kuphunzitsa Kwachisiriya Kwa Atumwi ndi kulembetsa mu SyP zolembedwa pamanja 12, 17, 21 ndi 41 zidanenanso kuti Yohane adalemba Uthenga Wabwino mu Chigiriki ali ku Efeso. Mtundu wa Yohane wa Chisuriya (Chiaramu) uli ndi kuwerengedwa kambiri komwe sikugwirizana ndi zolemba zina zilizonse. 

Zisonyezero Zina kuti Yohane adalembedwa m'Chigiriki

Yohane linalembedwa mochedwa kwambiri m'zaka za zana loyamba. Pa nthawiyo akhristu ambiri anali kulankhula Chigiriki. Uthenga wabwino walembedwa m'Chigiriki chabwino.

Ambiri mwa mawu omwe Yohane analemba sankagwirizana ndendende ndi malemba achiyuda omwe amadziwika bwino.[1]

Uthenga wabwino umasokoneza malingaliro ochokera ku nzeru za Agiriki monga lingaliro la zinthu zomwe zimakhalapo kudzera mwa LogosMu filosofi yakale yachi Greek, mawu akuti logos amatanthauza tanthauzo la chilengedwe.[2] Mwanjira imeneyi, zinali zofanana ndi lingaliro lachihebri la Wisdom. Wafilosofi wachiyuda wachi Greek Philo adagwirizanitsa mitu iwiriyi pofotokoza Logos ngati Mulungu amene adalenga komanso amakhala nkhoswe ya dziko lapansi. Malinga ndi a Stephen Harris, uthengawu udasinthiratu momwe Philo amafotokozera Logos, ndikuigwiritsa ntchito kwa Yesu, thupi la Logos.[3]
 

[1] Menken, MJJ (1996). Zolemba za Chipangano Chakale mu Uthenga Wachinayi: Studies in Textual Form. Ofalitsa a Peeters. ISBN , p11-13

[2] Greene, Colin JD (2004). Christology mu Chikhalidwe Pazikhalidwe: Kuyika Zojambula. Kampani Yofalitsa ya Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2792-0., p37-

[3] Harris, Stephen L. (2006). Kumvetsa Baibulo (Wachisanu ndi chiwiri). Phiri la McGraw. ISBN 978-0-07-296548-3, tsa 302-310

 

Maliko adalembedwa ku Roma mchilankhulo cha Chiroma

Maliko adalembedwa ku Roma kuti athandize mpingo wachiroma

Malinga ndi mabishopu oyambilira kuphatikiza Papias waku Hierapolis ndi Irenaeus waku Lyon, Maliko mlalikiyo anali womasulira Petro ku Roma. Adalemba zonse zomwe Peter adaphunzitsa za Ambuye Yesu. Kumapeto kwa zaka za zana lachiŵiri, Clement waku Alexandria analemba mu Hyptoyposes ake kuti Aroma adapempha Marko kuti "awasiyire chipilala cholembera chiphunzitso" cha Peter. Akuluakulu onsewa adagwirizana kuti Uthenga Wabwino wa Marko udalembedwa ku Roma kuti mpingo wa Roma upindule. 

Maliko adalembedwa mchilankhulo cha Chiroma ngati sichinali Chiaramu kapena Chiheberi

SyP ali ndi cholembedwa kumapeto kwa Maliko chonena kuti zinalembedwa ku Roma mchilankhulo chachiroma.[1] Zolemba pamanja za Bohairic C.1, D1, ndi E1 ochokera kumpoto kwa Egypt ali ndi colophon yofananira.[2] Greek Unicals G ndi K kuphatikiza malembo apamanja 9. 10, 13, 105, 107, 124, 160, 161, 293, 346, 483, 484 ndi 543 ali ndi mawu amtsinde, "olembedwa mu Chiroma ku Roma."[3] Chi Greek chinali chilankhulo choyambirira cha Kumwera kwa Italy ndi Sicily. Chilatini chidakhala ku Roma komweko. Kuchokera m'makalata a Paul ndi Peter, panali ambiri ku Roma komwe amalankhula bwino Chigiriki, monga Silvanus, Luka, ndi Timothy. Zikuwoneka kuti Maliko anali akutumikira monga wa Peter pakati pa omwe adatembenuka ku Roma omwe amalankhula Chigiriki ndi Chilatini. Akatswiri ambiri amakhulupirira kuti Maliko adalembedwa m'Chigiriki ndipo ochepa amati zidalembedwa m'Chilatini. Zomwe zikuwonekeratu kuti sizinalembedwe m'Chiheberi kapena Chiaramu. 

[1] Philip E. Pusey ndi George H. Gwilliam eds. Tetraeuangelium santum justa simplicem Syrorum mtundu, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1901), p314-315. 

[2] (Henry Frowde, Coptic Version of the NT in the Northern Dialect, Vol. 1, (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1898), I, Ii, lxii, lxxvii)

[3] Constantin von Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Grace, Vol. 1, (Leipzing: Adof Zima, 1589) p. 325

Mateyu amatenga kuchokera kwa Maliko (gwero losakhala Chihebri)

Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu udalembedwa pambuyo poti Uthenga wa Marko udalembedwa ndipo mwina 70 AD isanafike (chaka cha kuwonongedwa kwa Kachisi ku Yerusalemu). Mateyu zikuwonekeratu kuti amadalira Maliko pazambiri zake popeza 95% ya Uthenga Wabwino wa Marko imapezeka mkati mwa Mateyu ndipo 53% yamalembawo ndi mawu (mawu-ndi mawu) ochokera kwa Marko. Uthengawu akuti umatchulidwa ndi Mateyu chifukwa chongoganiza kuti zina mwazinthu zapadera mwina zidachokera kwa Mateyu (wophunzira wa Yesu yemwe kale anali wokhometsa msonkho) ngakhale zambiri zomwe zidachokera ku Uthenga Wabwino wa Maliko monga ambiri amaziwonera ndizokongoletsa pa Maliko. Akatswiri ena amakhulupirira kuti Mateyu poyambirira adalembedwa mchilankhulo cha Chi Semiti (Chiheberi kapena Chiaramu) ndipo pambuyo pake adamasuliridwa m'Chigiriki. Zimatsimikiziridwa ndi abambo atchalitchi kuti panali mtundu wa Chiaramu (kapena Chihebri) kuwonjezera pa Chi Greek. Zigawo zotengedwa kuchokera ku Marko mwina ziyenera kuti zidamasuliridwa kuchokera ku Greek kupita ku Aramaic (kapena Chiheberi). Buku loyambirira kwambiri la Mateyu lomwe lidatsalira lili m'Chigiriki kuyambira zaka za zana lachinayi.

Chodziwikiratu ndikuti Mateyu ndi kuphatikiza kwa zopangira osati za wophunzira m'modzi kapena gwero limodzi. Mateyu sanapangidwe ngati mbiri yakale. M'malo mwake, Mateyu ali ndi magawo ena ophunzitsira ndi magwiridwe antchito. Kutchulidwa kwa Uthenga Wabwino "malinga ndi Mateyu" kunawonjezeredwa pambuyo pake. Umboni woti abambo a Tchalitchi amati ndi Mateyu umafikira m'zaka za zana lachiwiri. Ili ndi zomangamanga zophatikiza zolembalemba zokhala ndiziphunzitso zazikulu zisanu ndi chimodzi.

Makalata a Pauline adalembedwa m'Chigiriki

Paulo anali kulembera Akhristu olankhula Chigiriki ndi mipingo. Chilankhulo cha Greek cha Koine, chilankhulo chodziwika ku Greece komanso ufumu wakale wachi Greek, womwe udalowedwa m'malo ndi Ufumu wa Roma nthawi ya Khristu. Chipangano Chatsopano chinalembedwa m'Chigiriki cha Koine, ndipo ambiri mwa iwo ndi Paulo.

Mtumwi Paulo anali mtumwi kwa Amitundu. Amalankhula Chi Greek bwino, ndipo amawagwiritsa ntchito mosalekeza popita mdziko lonse la Roma akulalikira uthenga wabwino. Pokhapokha atakhala ku Yudeya, ndi ku Yerusalemu, mpamene adagwiritsa ntchito Chiheberi (Machitidwe 22: 2). Polemba makalata ake ku mipingo yonse - Roma, Korinto, Efeso, Galatia, Filipi - mosakayikira adalembanso mu Chigriki. Palibe umboni uliwonse woti poyambirira adagwiritsa ntchito mayina achihebri a Mulungu m'malo mwa mawonekedwe achi Greek, monga momwe asungidwira zaka mazana ambiri.

Bukhu la Ahebri

Zitha kukhala kuti Bukhu la Aheberi lidalembedwa koyambirira m'Chiheberi koma mtundu womwewo sunatsalire. Eusebius anena izi kuchokera kwa Clement:

Eusebius. Bukhu 6, Chaputala XIV

2. Akuti Kalata kwa Ahebri ndi ntchito ya Paulo, ndikuti idalembedwa kwa Aheberi mchilankhulo cha Chiheberi; koma kuti Luka adalitanthauzira mosamalitsa ndikulisindikiza kwa Agiriki, motero machitidwe omwewo amafotokozedwa mu kalata iyi ndi mu Machitidwe. 3. Koma akuti mawu oti, Paulo Mtumwi, mwina sanatchulidwepo, chifukwa, potumiza kwa Ahebri, omwe anali amwano ndi omukayikira, mwanzeru sanafune kuwabwezera pachiyambi pomupatsa dzina.

Kupitilira apo akuti: "Koma tsopano, monga mkulu wodalitsika adanena, popeza Ambuye pokhala mtumwi wa Wamphamvuyonse, adatumizidwa kwa Ahebri, Paulo, monga wotumizidwa kwa Amitundu, chifukwa cha kudzichepetsa kwake sanadzipereke yekha Mtumwi wa Ahebri, chifukwa cha kulemekeza Ambuye, ndipo chifukwa chakuti anali wolengeza ndi mtumwi wa Amitundu analembera Ahebri chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwake. ” 

Zomwe tidasunga ndi Aheberi m'Chigiriki ndipo zolemba zonse za Chipangano Chakale, makamaka zovuta kwambiri, zimachokera ku Greek Septuagint. Mwachitsanzo, Ahebri 1: 6 akugwira mawu Septuagint ya Deuteronomo 32:43, "Angelo onse a Mulungu amupembedze Iye" - izi sizinapezeke m'malemba achiheberi a Amasoreti. Chitsanzo china ndi Ahebri 10:38 omwe amalemba mawu achi Greek a Septuagint a Habakuku 2: 3-4, "Akazengereza (kapena kubwerera m'mbuyo), moyo wanga sukondwera," koma Mheberi akuti, "moyo wake wadzitukumula, osati owongoka. ” Chitsanzo china ndi Ahebri 12: 6 akugwira mawu Septuagint pa Miyambo 3:12, "Amalanga mwana aliyense amene amulandira." Chihebri cha Amasorete chimati “monga atate mwana wake amene akondwera naye.” Kugwiritsa ntchito Masoretic achihebri m'malo mwa Septuagint yachi Greek sikungakhale kwanzeru pamalingaliro amawu. Chifukwa chake zikuwonekeratu kuti ngati Aheberi adachokera ku Chiheberi, zikadakhala kuti zikubwereza mawu achi Greek a Chipangano Chakale. 

Chivumbulutso chinalembedwa mu Chigriki

Chizindikiro chachikulu kuti Chivumbulutso sichidalembedwe m'Chiheberi kapena Chiaramu ndikuti sichidagwiritsidwe ntchito ku Eastern Churches mzaka zoyambirira zapitazo ndipo chidachotsedwa mu Peshitta yachi Aramu. 

Komanso, a Irenaeus amatchulidwapo za kulembedwa kwa buku la Chivumbulutso, komanso nambala yachinsinsi ya "666," nambala ya Wokana Kristu. Irenaeus akulemba kuti:

"Umu ndi momwe zilili: chiwerengerochi chimapezeka m'makope onse abwino komanso oyambilira ndipo chimatsimikiziridwa ndi anthu omwe anali John maso ndi maso, ndipo chifukwa chake chimatiphunzitsa kuti dzina la Chilombo likuwonetsedwa malinga ndi momwe manambala achi Greek amagwiritsidwira ntchito ndi zilembo mmenemo. . . . ” (tsamba 211).

Chipangano Chatsopano chimagwira mawu Septuagint (Greek Old Testament)

Mwa mawu pafupifupi 300 a Chipangano Chakale mu Chipangano Chatsopano, pafupifupi 2/3 mwa iwo adachokera ku Septuagint (kutanthauzira kwachi Greek kwa Chipangano Chakale) komwe kunaphatikizapo mabuku a deuterocanonical. Zitsanzo zimapezeka mu Mateyu, Marko, Luka, Machitidwe, Yohane, Aroma, 1 Akorinto, 2 Akorinto, Agalatiya, 2 Timoteo, Ahebri ndi 1 Petro. 

 

Kufunika kwake kuti mabuku a Chipangano Chatsopano adalembedwa liti

Pofika chaka cha AD 50 akhristu ambiri anali kulankhula Chigiriki, osati olankhula Chiaramu. Ngati limodzi la mabukuwa lidalembedwa AD 40 asanakwane, ndiye kuti mwina atha kukhala ndi Chiaramu choyambirira, koma sizili choncho. Akatswiri ena anena kuti buku loyambirira kwambiri la Chipangano Chatsopano ndi Agalatiya kapena 1 Atesalonika, cha m'ma AD 50. Mabuku onsewa adalembedwera oyankhula achi Greek, motero anali achi Greek. Maliko ayenera kuti adalembedwa mzaka za m'ma 40, koma mwina anali mzaka za m'ma 50, motero sizosadabwitsa kuti zidalembedwa m'Chigiriki. Mabuku a Chipangano Chatsopano 19 mpaka 24 adalembedwa momveka bwino kumadera olankhula Chigiriki kapena kuchokera.

Aramaic Peshitta NT idamasuliridwa kuchokera ku Chi Greek

Chipangano Chatsopano cha Chiaramu Peshitta chidamasuliridwa kuchokera m'mipukutu yachi Greek m'zaka za zana lachisanu. Syriac Yakale idamasuliridwa kuchokera m'mipukutu yoyambirira yachi Greek m'zaka za zana lachiwiri. Ngakhale kutanthauzira kwakale kwachi Syriac kunapangidwa kuchokera pamalemba achi Greek omwe anali osiyana ndi malembedwe achi Greek omwe adasinthidwa Peshitta, adamasuliridwa kuchokera m'malemba achi Greek. [1]

[1] Brock, The Bible In the Syriac Miyambo. p13, 25-30

https://archive.org/stream/TheBibleInTheSyriacTradition/BrockTheBibleInTheSyriacTradition#page/n7/mode/2up

Peshitta ndi chilankhulo cha Chiaramu chomwe ndi chosiyana ndi momwe Yesu akadagwiritsira ntchito. Baibulo lachisiriya lotchedwa Peshitta siloposa malembo apamanja achigiriki chifukwa chongolankhula Chiaramu. 

Mavuto owonjezera ndi umuna wa Peshitta adalembedwa apa: http://aramaicnt.org/articles/problems-with-peshitta-primacy/

Chi Greek chimalankhulidwa ku Palestina

Ponena za Ayuda olankhula Chigiriki amapezeka bwino m'buku la Machitidwe. Pa Machitidwe 6: 1 ena mwa akhristu oyamba ku Yerusalemu anenedwa kuti ndi "Agiriki." Buku la King James Version limati, "Ndipo m'masiku amenewo, pamene chiwerengero cha ophunzira chidachuluka, kudayamba kudandawula kwa Ahelene (Hellenistai) motsutsana ndi Ahebri (Hebraioi), chifukwa amasiye awo adasalidwa mu utumiki wa tsiku ndi tsiku" (Machitidwe 6: 1). Teremuyo Hellenistai limagwira ntchito kwa Ayuda olankhula Chigiriki, m'masunagoge awo olankhula Chigiriki, ndipo kumene mosakayikira Malemba a Septuagint amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri. Izi zikutsimikiziridwa mu Machitidwe 9:29 pomwe timawerenga kuti: "Ndipo iye (Saulo, amene dzina lake linasinthidwa kukhala Paulo) adayankhula molimbika mtima m'dzina la Ambuye Yesu, natsutsana nawo Agriki. . . ” "Agiriki" kapena "Achihelene" anali Ayuda olankhula Chigiriki, omwe anali ndi masunagoge awo, ngakhale ku Yerusalemu.

Yesu Mesiya: Kafukufuku Wamoyo wa Khristu, Robert H. Stein, InterVarsity Press, 1996, tsamba 87

“Chiyankhulo chachitatu chachikulu chomwe chimalankhulidwa ku Palestina chinali Chi Greek. Mphamvu zakugonjetsa Alesandro Wamkulu m'zaka za zana lachinayi BC zidapangitsa kuti Mediterranean ikhale 'nyanja yaku Greece' m'masiku a Yesu. M'zaka za zana lachitatu Ayuda ku Egypt sanathenso kuwerenga Malemba m'Chiheberi, motero anayamba kuwatanthauzira m'Chigiriki. Baibulo lotchuka limeneli linayamba kudziwika kuti Septuagint (LXX). Yesu, yemwe anakulira ku 'Galileya, wa Akunja,' adangokhala mamailo atatu kapena anayi okha kuchokera mumzinda wopambana wa Greek wa Sepphoris. Mwina pankakhala nthawi zina pamene iye ndi bambo ake ankagwira ntchito mumzinda waukulu womwe ukukula mofulumirawu, womwe unali likulu la Herode Antipas mpaka AD 26, pamene anasamutsira likulu lake ku Tiberiya ” 

Stein akuwuzanso kuti kupezeka kwa "Agiriki" mu Mpingo woyambirira (Machitidwe 6: 1-6) kukutanthauza kuti kuyambira pomwe Mpingo udali, panali Akhristu achiyuda omwe amalankhula mu Chiyuda. Mawu oti "Agiriki" amatanthauza kuti chilankhulo chawo chinali chachi Greek, osati chikhalidwe kapena nzeru zawo. Kumbukirani, awa anali Akhristu achiyuda omwe chilankhulo chawo chachikulu chinali Chigriki - sanali anzeru achi Greek kapena otsatira awo, koma otsatira Khristu Yesu.

Umboni wosonyeza kuti Yesu ankalankhula Chigiriki

Pali zisonyezo zina zoti mwina Yesu amalankhula Chi Greek ngati chilankhulo chachiwiri (kuphatikiza Chiaramu).

Mauthenga Abwino onse anayi akuwonetsa Yesu akukambirana ndi Pontiyo Pilato, kazembe wachiroma waku Yudeya, panthawi yoweruzidwa kwake (Marko 15: 2-5; Mateyu 27: 11-14; Luka 23: 3; Yohane 18: 33- 38). Ngakhale titalola kuti zolemba izi zikometsedwe, sipangakhale kukayika kuti Yesu ndi Pilato adalankhulapo. . . Kodi Yesu ndi Pilato ankalankhula m'chinenero chiti? Sakutchulidwa za womasulira. Popeza palibe chifukwa choti Pilato, Mroma, akadatha kulankhula Chiaramu kapena Chiheberi, tanthauzo lodziwikiratu ndilakuti Yesu adalankhula Chigiriki pamlandu wake pamaso pa Pilato.

pamene Yesu amalankhula ndi Kenturiyo wachiroma, mtsogoleri wa gulu lankhondo lankhondo lachiroma, kenturiyo ayenera kuti sanali kulankhula Chiaramu kapena Chiheberi. Ndizotheka kuti Yesu adalankhula naye m'Chigiriki, chilankhulo chofala panthawiyo mu ufumu wonse wa Roma (onani Mat. 8: 5-13; Luka 7: 2-10; Yoh. 4: 46-53). Wantchito wachifumu waku Roma, wogwirira ntchito ya Herode Antipas, Wakunja, ayenera kuti adalankhula ndi Yesu m'Chigiriki.

Tikuwona kuti Yesu adapita kudera lachikunja ku Turo ndi Sidoni, komwe adalankhula ndi mayi waku Suro-Foinike. Uthenga Wabwino wa Marko umazindikiritsa mkaziyu ngati Hellene, kutanthauza "Mgiriki" (Marko 7:26). Zotheka kuti, ndiye, kuti Yesu adalankhula naye m'Chigiriki.

M'nkhaniyi mu Yohane 12, pomwe timauzidwa kuti: "Ndipo panali Ahelene ena mwa iwo omwe adadza kudzapembedza paphwando: Ameneyo adadza kwa Filipo, wa ku Betsaida wa ku Galileya, namfunsa iye, nati, , tidaona Yesu ”(Yohane 12: 20-21). Amunawa anali Agiriki, ndipo ayenera kuti amalankhula Chigiriki, zomwe Filipo mwachidziwikire amamvetsetsa, popeza anakulira m'dera la Galileya, osati dera lamadzi lomwe ambiri amaganiza, koma "Galileya wa Amitundu" (Mat 4:15) - a malo azamalonda komanso malonda apadziko lonse lapansi, pomwe Chigiriki chikadakhala chilankhulo wamba chabizinesi.

Yesu Mesiya: Kafukufuku Wamoyo wa Khristu, Robert H. Stein, InterVarsity Press, 1996, tsamba 87

“Ophunzira awiri a Yesu ankadziwika ndi mayina awo achi Greek: Andrew ndi Philip. Kuphatikiza apo, pali zochitika zingapo muutumiki wa Yesu pomwe amalankhula ndi anthu omwe sankadziwa Chiaramu kapena Chiheberi. Chifukwa chake pokhapokha womasulira asakhalepo (ngakhale palibe amene adatchulidwapo), zokambirana zawo mwina zimachitika mchilankhulo chachi Greek. Mwinanso Yesu adalankhula Chigiriki munthawi zotsatirazi: atapita ku Turo, Sidoni ndi Dekapoli (Marko 7: 31ff), kukambirana ndi mayi wa ku Suro-Fonike (Marko 7: 24-30; yerekezerani makamaka 7:26) ndi kuzenga mlandu pamaso pa Pontiyo Pilato (Maliko 15: 2-15; yerekezaninso zokambirana za Yesu ndi 'Agiriki' pa Yohane 12: 20-36) ”

Umboni wa m'Mbiri ndi Mauthenga Abwino kuti Yesu Ankalankhula Chigiriki

Pepala lomaliza lolembedwa ndi Corey Keating

Sakanizani: PDF

Kuvomerezeka kotanthauzira dzina la Mulungu

Cholinga chachikulu chodzinenera kuti Chipangano Chatsopano chidalembedwa m'Chiheberi ndi mizu yachiheberi, ndikulakalaka kungogwiritsa ntchito katchulidwe kachihebri ka dzina la Mulungu. Komabe palibe umboni wa m'Baibulo wosonyeza kuti Mulungu ayenera kumangotchulidwa ndi mayina Ake achihebri okha. Palibe umboni wa m'Baibulo kapena wazilankhulo womwe umaletsa kugwiritsa ntchito mayina achingerezi a Mulungu.

Ngati Mulungu Wamphamvuyonse amangofuna kuti tigwiritse ntchito mayina achihebri potchula Mulungu, titha kuyembekeza kuti olemba Chipangano Chatsopano akadaphatikiza mayina achihebri a Mulungu nthawi iliyonse akamutchula! Koma samatero. M'malo mwake, m'Chipangano Chatsopano amagwiritsa ntchito mawonekedwe achi Greek achiyuda ndi mayina. Amamutcha Mulungu "Theos" m'malo "Elohim." Amanenanso za Greek Old Testament (Septuagint) yomwe imagwiritsanso ntchito mayina achi Greek achi Mulungu.

Ngakhale mbali zina za Chipangano Chatsopano zidalembedwa m'Chiheberi (monga Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu), monga ena amanenera, sizodabwitsa kuti Mulungu sanasunge zolembedwazo - m'malo mwake Malemba a Chipangano Chatsopano adasungidwa mchilankhulo chachi Greek, ndi mapangidwe Achigiriki a dzina lake ndi maudindo.

Palibe buku limodzi la Chipangano Chatsopano lomwe lidasungidwa m'Chihebri - m'Chigiriki chokha. Uwu ndi umboni woyamba kuti chilankhulo chimodzi kuti Chiheberi sichiyenera kutchulidwa pa Chi Greek, ndikuti sikulakwa kugwiritsa ntchito mawonekedwe amtundu wa dzina la Mulungu momwe amamasuliridwira kuchokera ku Chiheberi kapena Chigiriki. Palibe paliponse m’Baibulo pamene pamanena kuti n’kulakwa kugwiritsa ntchito mayina a Mulungu m’Chiaramu, Chigiriki, kapena chinenero chilichonse padziko lapansi.

Ndizabodza kunena kuti Chipangano Chatsopano chidayenera kulembedwa m'Chihebri, ndikuti chidangokhala ndi mayina achihebri a Mulungu. Umboni wonse wazolembedwa pamanja umanena mosiyana. Iwo amene amakana kuti Chipangano Chakale chimasunga mokhulupirika chidziwitso cha dzina la Mulungu, ndipo omwe amati Chipangano Chatsopano chidalembedwa m'Chiheberi, kugwiritsa ntchito mayina achihebri a Mulungu, alibe umboni kapena umboni uliwonse wotsimikizira zonena zawo. Sitiyenera kusintha lingaliro ili pomwe kupitirira kwa umboni kumathandizira kulembedwa kwa Agiriki Chipangano Chatsopano.

Peter adalengeza kuti: "Zoonadi, ndazindikira kuti Mulungu alibe tsankho. Koma m'mitundu yonse, wakumuwopa Iye ndi wakuchita chilungamo alandiridwa naye." (Machitidwe 10: 34-35)

Ndemanga pamwambapa zasinthidwa kuchokera ku ntgreek.org https://www.ntgreek.org/answers/nt_written_in_greek

Matchulidwe angapo a dzina la Yesu

Pali ena omwe amalimbikira kugwiritsa ntchito katchulidwe ka Chihebri ka Yahusha chifukwa cha dzina la Yesu popeza, mwa lingaliro, ndi momwe dzina lake limatchulidwira mu Chihebri. Komabe pakuchita palibe umboni wapamanja kapena wolemba kuti Yesu adatchulidwapo izi ndi Ayuda mu Chikhristu choyambirira. Ndi Ayuda omwe sanali achihelene, Yesu akadatchulidwa ndi amodzi mwamatchulidwe angapo achiaramu otere Yeshua, Yes, Yishu, or Eashoa. Chiaramu (chofanana ndi Chisuriya cha Peshitta) chinali chilankhulo chodziwika bwino cha Asemiti panthawiyo. 

Popeza Mpingo woyambirira udagwiritsa ntchito mawu achi Greek ndi Aramaic a Yesu kutanthauzira Chipangano Chatsopano, tiyenera kukhala okhutira nawo komanso osakhazikitsa lamulo loti mayina ena atchulidwe mwanjira ina mchilankhulo chimodzi. 

Chi Greek Ndine wokonda (Ἰησοῦς) zimachokera kutchulidwe kwa Chiaramu Eashoa (mapinduwo). Kuti mumve matchulidwe achiaramu onani kanema pansipa- komanso ulalowu: https://youtu.be/lLOE8yry9Cc