Mabuku Otchulidwa
Mabuku Otchulidwa

Mabuku Otchulidwa

Kutanthauzira kwa Baibulo ndi Chipangano Chatsopano

ESV Yaikulu Sindikizani Kukula Kwawekha Baibulo (TruTone, Forest / Tan, Trail Design)

https://amzn.to/3e7iJqR

The ESV Yaikulu Sindikizani Kukula Kwaumwini Baibulo ili ndi mawu owerengeka kwambiri a Baibulo la 12 pamtengo wonyamulika - wopangidwa kuchokera kuzinthu zabwino komanso ndi mzere wofananira kuti muchepetse kuwonetsa tsamba ndi tsamba, cholinga chake ndikuthandizira kuwerenga bwino.

Mawonekedwe:

  • Chikhomo cha Ribbon
  • Zomanga zosindikizidwa
  • Mtundu wa 12-Milo Serif OT

Chipangano Chatsopano Chokwanira

https://amzn.to/2Rcl1vE

Adapangira makamaka maphunziro a Baibulo. Chimodzi mwa zinthu zofunika kwambiri ndichakuti mawu am'munsi amaperekedwa kumapeto kwa tsamba lililonse kutanthauzira mitundu ingapo yamalemba achi Greek omwe amagawika m'magulu awiri: Gulu la "Alexandria" likuyimira mipukutu yakale kwambiri yomwe idalipo. Gulu la "Byzantine" likuyimira mipukutu yambiri. Ikuwonetsanso mitundu ing'onoing'ono. Pansipa pa tsamba lirilonse pali zida zofananira zomwe zimapereka zosankha zamabaibulo 20 pandime iliyonse ya Chipangano Chatsopano. Ngakhale idamasuliridwa kuchokera kuutatu, kutanthauziraku kumagwiritsa ntchito Critical Text (NA-27) ngati gwero la 100% ya nthawiyo komanso kumawerengedwa kwambiri. 

Septuagint ya Lexham English: A New Translation

https://amzn.to/3u6F0um

he Lexham English Septuagint (LES) ndikutanthauzira kwatsopano kwa Septuagint, mtundu wachi Greek wazolemba za Chipangano Chakale zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito munthawi ya Chipangano Chatsopano komanso mu tchalitchi choyambirira. Zokongoletsa bwino pamitundu yosavuta, yamtundu umodzi, LES imapereka Septuagint yeniyeni, yowerengeka, komanso yowonekera ya Septuagint ya owerenga amakono. Kusunga mayina omwe amadziwika bwino ndi malo, a LES amapatsa owerenga kutha kuliwerenga limodzi ndi Chingerezi chomwe amakonda. Kumasuliridwa molunjika kuchokera ku Septuagint ya Swete, LES imasunga tanthauzo la zolembedwa zoyambirira, ndikupangitsa Septuagint kupezeka kwa owerenga masiku ano.

Holy Bible: Kuchokera Kumasulira Akale Kumasulira: Kutanthauzira kwa George M. Lamsa Kuchokera ku Chiaramu cha Peshitta

https://amzn.to/3xEAZzE

Ndi bukuli katswiri wamkulu wamaphunziro a Chipangano Chatsopano amapereka gawo lowonjezera pazolemba za nthawi ya atumwi oyamba. Nthawi imeneyi, pomwe kukumbukira kwa Yesu kunali kwatsopano koma palibe zolembedwa zonena za iye zomwe zidalipo, zimapereka mwayi wofotokozera momwe Dr. Cadbury amagwiritsira ntchito. Cholinga cha masambawa, akulemba, ndikuti atsimikizire kuti buku la Machitidwe silolondola monga zowonekera pazowonekera komanso miyambo ndi malingaliro omwe akuwonetsedwa…. Titha kuyenda komwe Mtumwi Paulo adayenda, kuwona zomwe adawona, ndikukhala kunyumba kwathu kwakanthawi. Mitu isanu ikufotokoza chilichonse mwazikhalidwe zisanu zomwe zidalipo: Aroma, Greek, Jewish, Christian, and cosmopolitan. Kuyesa kwachisanu ndi chimodzi kukonzanso mbiri yakale kwambiri ya buku la Machitidwe.

Mulungu m'modzi, Atate, Munthu Mmodzi Messiah Translation: New Testament with Commentary

https://amzn.to/3nzMUK9

Ambiri opita kutchalitchi samadziwa kuti zomwe amalandira kutchalitchi ngati 'Baibulo' zasefedwa kwa iwo pogwiritsa ntchito malingaliro anzeru zachi Greek. Mwambowu umakhudza kwambiri chiphunzitso chachikhristu chomwe chilipo, ndikubisa mbali zoyambira zikhulupiriro zoyambirira za Yesu ndi Atumwi. Mabungwe omwe amatumizidwa pambuyo pa Baibulo adachita zambiri kuphimba 'chikhulupiriro chomwe chidaperekedwa kamodzi.' Omwe amafunsa moona mtima za chowonadi chopulumutsa cha Lemba adzapeza kumasulira uku kwa Chipangano Chatsopano. Omasulira ambiri amakonda 'kuwerenga' malingaliro amu baibulo omwe sanalembedwe ndi olemba Chipangano Chatsopano.

Chipangano Chatsopano cha Tyndale

https://amzn.to/3gRunrl

Kumasulira kwa Chipangano Chatsopano m'Chingelezi kuchokera m'Chigiriki choyambirira kudasindikizidwa ku Germany mu 1534 ndikubwezeretsedwanso ku England. Chifukwa chake zidathawa zomwe Tyndale adalemba kale, zomwe zidalandidwa ndikuwotchedwa poyera ndi akuluakulu. Mtundu wa 1534 udakwiyitsa atsogoleri achipembedzo popatsa anthu wamba mwayi wopeza mawu a Mulungu, osindikizidwa mchingerezi koyamba. Tyndale, yemwe anali kale kundende pazifukwa zandale, anasakidwa ndipo pambuyo pake adawotchedwa pamtengo chifukwa chomchitira mwano. Kwa zaka makumi asanu ndi atatu zotsatira ― zaka za Shakespeare pakati pa zina translation kumasulira kwaukadaulo kwa Tyndale kunapanga maziko a Mabaibulo onse achingerezi. Ndipo pomwe King James Bible yovomerezeka idasindikizidwa mu 1611, magawo ake abwino kwambiri sanasinthidwe, ngakhale sanalandiridwe, kuchokera ku zomwe Tyndale analemba.

Canon /

kalembedwe Pachilichonse

Mapangidwe a Buku Lopatulika Lachikhristu

https://amzn.to/3ny2FBi

Lee McDonald adalemba nkhani yopindulitsa komanso yopezeka pakupanga kwa Christian Bible, momveka bwino akutsutsa umboni waukulu, kuthana ndi mavuto akulu, ndikufikira pamapeto pake. Pogwiritsa ntchito mndandanda wa mabuku a Chipangano Chakale ndi Chatsopano, amatanthauzira zolemba zoyambirira zakale, zidule zabwino pamikangano yamaphunziro, komanso chitsogozo chofunikira kumabuku ambiri ophunzira pamutuwu. Bukuli lipeza owerenga oyamika pakati pa ophunzira, abusa, ndikufunsa osanjikiza.

Uthenga Wabwino Wachinayi mu Kutsutsa Kwaposachedwa ndi Kutanthauzira, Kope lachinayi

https://amzn.to/3wECHkk

Wilbert Howard anali wofotokozera wodziwika bwino wa Uthenga Wabwino Wachinai, ndipo m'bukuli adatsimikizira kuti ndi chitsogozo chotsimikizika kwa ophunzira ndi owerenga onse kudzera muzovuta za mbiri yakale ndi zotsutsa zamkati momwe izi zidakhudza kumasulira kwa Uthenga uwu. CK Barrett anawonjezera zigawo zake kuti aganizire bwino za ntchito yotsatira, mpaka 1961, pa vuto la Uthenga Wabwino Wachinayi.

The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, ndi Kubwezeretsa (4th Edition) 

https://amzn.to/3e61mXj

Buku latsopanoli la Bruce M. Metzger ndi buku latsopanoli kwambiri lopezeka polemba Chipangano Chatsopano. Malemba a Chipangano Chatsopano. Kuwunikaku kumabweretsa zokambirana pazinthu zofunika kwambiri monga zolembedwa pamanja zachi Greek zoyambirira komanso njira zotsutsira mawu mpaka pano, kuphatikiza zomwe zapezedwa posachedwa ndi njira zomwe zidafikira mthupi la zolembedwazo (mosiyana ndi zomwe zidasinthidwa m'mbuyomu, zomwe zidalemba zatsopano ndi zolemba m'ziwonjezeko ). Malembo omwe amapangidwa mu maphunziro a baibulo komanso mbiri ya chikhristu kuyambira pomwe idasindikizidwa koyamba mu 1964.

* Bart Ehrman akuyenera kuganiziridwa chifukwa cha ntchito yake yoyamba yotsutsa malemba - osati ntchito yake yaposachedwa (zaka 20) yomasulira Baibulo.

Corruption Lemba la Orthodox: Zotsatira Zoyambitsa Zoyambirira Zachipembedzo pa Zolemba za Chipangano Chatsopano

https://amzn.to/3nDaZA2

Opambana samangolemba mbiriyakale: amapanganso zolemba zawozo. Izi zikuwunika ubale wapakati pa mbiriyakale ya Chikhristu choyambirira ndi miyambo yolembedwa ya Chipangano Chatsopano, ndikuwunika momwe kulimbana koyambirira pakati pa "mpatuko" wachikhristu ndi "chiphunzitso" kumakhudza kufalitsa kwa zikalata zomwe zokambirana zambiri zimayendetsedwa. 

* Bart Ehrman akuyenera kuganiziridwa chifukwa cha ntchito yake yoyamba yotsutsa malemba - osati ntchito yake yaposachedwa (zaka 20) yomasulira Baibulo.

Mlandu Wotsutsana ndi Q: Kafukufuku Woyamba Kwambiri pa Markan ndi Vuto Limodzi

https://amzn.to/331iuHm /

http://www.markgoodacre.org/Q/

Kwa zaka zopitilira zana maphunziro a Uthenga Wabwino avomereza chikalata chongopeka chotchedwa Q ngati imodzi mwamagawo akulu a Mauthenga Abwino. M'zaka zaposachedwa, yasinthidwa kuchokera pamawu anena kukhala Uthenga Wabwino payokha. Koma, a Mark Goodacre mu The Case Against Q, kuvomereza kwakukulu kwa Q sikungagwire ntchito ngati mkangano wakukhalapo kwake. Nthawi ndi nthawi anthu omwe amatsutsana nawo amalankhula motsutsana ndi kuvomerezedwa kwa Q ngati Uthenga Wabwino. Akatswiri anena, mwachitsanzo, kuti chidziwitso cha Luka cha Mateyo ndi Maliko chitha kuthandiza munthu kuthana ndi Q. Komabe, mawu otere nthawi zambiri samanyalanyazidwa chifukwa chosowa momveka bwino, moyenera komanso mwanzeru pankhani yokhudza Q. Chifukwa chake, mu The Case Against Q Goodacre amapereka tsatanetsatane wosamalitsa wa Q, powunika mfundo zofunika kwambiri za omwe akuyikira Q.

Vuto lofananira: njira yodutsamo

https://archive.org/details/synopticproblemw00good/mode/2uphttps://amzn.to/331iuHm /

https://amzn.to/3nMaEuL

Mwinamwake chovuta kwambiri cholembedwa m'mbiri, Vuto Lophatikiza lasangalatsa mibadwo ya akatswiri. Komabe Vuto Losagwirizana limakhalabe losafikirika kwa ophunzira, posachedwa lazunguliridwa ndi zovuta zake. Koma tsopano a Mark Goodacre akupereka njira yodutsamo, ndikulonjeza kutuluka kumapeto, ndikulongosola mwanjira yosangalatsa komanso yotsitsimutsa zomwe kuphunzira za Vuto Limodzi limaphatikizapo, chifukwa chiyani kuli kofunika komanso momwe lingathetsere. Ili ndi buku lowerengeka, loyenera komanso lotsogola, labwino kwa ophunzira asanafike pamaphunziro ndi owerenga onse.

Mbiri Yakale Yampingo 

Yesu Anakumbukira: Chikhristu M’kupanga, Voliyumu 1

https://amzn.to/3BJKMVE

James Dunn amadziwika padziko lonse lapansi ngati m'modzi mwa akatswiri odziwika bwino a m'Baibulo masiku ano. Atalemba maphunziro apamwamba a Chipangano Chatsopano ndi ntchito yokhazikika pa zamulungu za Paulo, Dunn pano akutembenuza cholembera chake ku kuwuka kwa Chikhristu. Yesu Anakumbukira ndi gawo loyamba la mbiri yakale ya mavoliyumu atatu ya zaka 120 zoyambirira za chikhulupiriro.

Ponena za Yesu, buku loyambali lili ndi mbali zingapo zosiyana. Imapeza maphunziro oti tiphunzire kuchokera ku "kufunafuna Yesu wa mbiri yakale" ndipo imakumana ndi zovuta za hermeneutical kuwunika kwa mbiri ndi zaumulungu za mwambo wa Yesu. Limapereka lingaliro latsopano ponse paŵiri pa chiyambukiro chopangidwa ndi Yesu ndi pa miyambo yonena za Yesu monga mwambo wapakamwa​—chifukwa chake amatchedwa “Yesu Anakumbukiridwa.” Ndipo imapereka kuwunika kwatsopano kwatsatanetsatane wamwambowo, kutsindika mawonekedwe ake (osati zosiyana). Zochititsa chidwinso ndi mmene Dunn amachitira ndi funso lochokera ku gwero lake (makamaka Q ndi Mauthenga Abwino omwe si ovomerezeka) komanso za Yesu Myuda m'mawu ake a ku Galileya.

M’kusanthula kwake mwatsatanetsatane miyambo ya Abaptisti, cholinga cha ufumu, kuitanira ndi khalidwe la kukhala wophunzira wa Yesu, zimene omvetsera a Yesu ankaganiza ponena za iye, zimene ankaganiza za iye mwini, chifukwa chake anapachikidwa, ndi mmene ndi chifukwa chake chikhulupiriro cha kuuka kwa Yesu chinayambira. , Dunn akutenga nawo mbali ndi mtima wonse mkangano wamakono, akumapereka zidziwitso zambiri zofunika ndikupereka nkhani yokhutiritsa ya momwe Yesu adakumbukiridwa kuyambira pachiyambi, ndi chifukwa chake.

Kuyambira ku Yerusalemu: Christianity in the Making, Volume 2

https://amzn.to/3nV1lJp

Voliyumu yachiwiri mu magisterial Christianity in the Making trilogy, Kuyambira ku Yerusalemu imakhudza kukhazikitsidwa koyambirira kwa chikhulupiriro chachikhristu kuyambira 30 mpaka 70 CE. Atatha kufotokoza za kufunafuna kwa tchalitchi cha mbiri yakale (chofanana ndi kufunafuna Yesu wa m’mbiri) ndi kupendanso magwero, James Dunn akutsatira njira yochokera kwa Yesu “kuyambira ku Yerusalemu.” 

Dunn akuyamba ndi kusanthula mosamalitsa zomwe zinganenedwe za mudzi wakale wa Yerusalemu, Agiriki, ntchito ya Peter, ndi kuwonekera kwa Paulo. Kenako amayang'ana kwambiri pa Paulo--nthawi ya moyo wake ndi ntchito yake, kumvetsetsa kwake kwa mayitanidwe ake ngati mtumwi, ndi chikhalidwe cha mipingo yomwe adayiyambitsa. Gawo lachitatu likulondolera masiku otsiriza ndi zolembedwa za anthu atatu otsogola a Chikristu cha m’badwo woyamba: Paulo, Petro, ndi Yakobo, mbale wake wa Yesu. Gawo lirilonse limaphatikizapo kuyanjana kwatsatanetsatane ndi chuma chochuluka cha mabuku achiwiri pamitu yambiri yomwe yafotokozedwa.

Palibe Myuda kapena Mgiriki: Chidziwitso Chotsutsana: Chikhristu mu Making, Voliyumu 3

https://amzn.to/2YiBaDS

Gawo lachitatu komanso lomaliza la mbiri ya magisterial ya James Dunn ya chiyambi chachikhristu mpaka 190 CE, Palibe Myuda kapena Mgiriki: Chidziwitso Chotsutsana ikufotokoza zimene zinachitika pamene Yerusalemu anawonongedwa mu 70 CE mpaka m'zaka za m'ma XNUMX CE, pamene gulu la Yesu lomwe linali latsopanolo linalimbitsa zizindikiro zake zodziwikitsa ndi zomangamanga zomwe lidzachititsa kuti likhale lokopa kwambiri m'zaka zambiri zotsatira.
 
Dunn akuwunika mozama zinthu zazikulu zomwe zidapangitsa Chikhristu cha m'badwo woyamba ndi kupitilira apo, ndikuwunika kugawa kwa njira pakati pa Chikhristu ndi Chiyuda, Chihelene cha Chikhristu, ndi mayankho ku Gnosticism. Iye amakumba magwero onse a m’zaka za zana loyamba ndi lachiŵiri, kuphatikizapo Mauthenga Abwino a Chipangano Chatsopano, Mauthenga Abwino a Chipangano Chatsopano, ndi makolo atchalitchi monga Ignatius, Justin Martyr, ndi Irenaeus, akusonyeza mmene mwambo wa Yesu ndi ziŵerengero za Yakobo, Paulo, Petro, ndipo Yohane anali akadali olemekezeka koma analinso nkhani ya mkangano waukulu pamene mpingo woyambirira unkalimbana ndi kusinthika kwake.

Eusebius: Mbiri ya Tchalitchi

https://amzn.to/3CJ5qGG

Mulinso zomasulira zogulitsidwa kwambiri za Maier, ndemanga zamakedzana pa buku lililonse la Mbiri ya Mpingo, ndi mapu khumi ndi zithunzi. Eusebius amene nthawi zambiri ankatchedwa “Tate wa Mbiri ya Tchalitchi,” analemba nkhani zofunika kwambiri zokhudza moyo wa ophunzira a Yesu, mmene Chipangano Chatsopano chinayambira, ndale za Aroma komanso kuzunzidwa kwa Akhristu oyambirira.

Chikhalidwe Chachikhristu: Mbiri Yakale ya Chiphunzitso, Vol. 1: Kuyambika kwa Chikhalidwe cha Katolika (100-600) (Voliyumu 1)

https://amzn.to/3gRB4tt

Pofika chaka cha 600 chiphunzitso chachikhristu chinali chitakwaniritsa zomwe Jaroslav amatcha "mgwirizano wovomerezeka." Zaka 100 mpaka 600 inali nthawi ya kupesa ndi mphamvu. Iyi ndi mbiri ya nthawi yovutayi. Pelikan amayang'ana kwambiri za ubale wobisika pakati pa zomwe okhulupirira amakhulupirira, zomwe aphunzitsi onse ndi achipembedzo - amaphunzitsa, ndi zomwe tchalitchi chidavomereza ngati chiphunzitso mzaka mazana asanu ndi limodzi zoyambirira zakukula. 

Luka - Machitidwe

A Theology of Luke and Acts: God's Promised Program, Realised for All Nations (Biblical Theology of the New Testament Series) Buku Lopatulika

https://amzn.to/3t4RPUJ

Ntchito yolembedwa ndi Darrell Bock imafufuza bwino zaumulungu wa uthenga wabwino wa Luka komanso buku la Machitidwe. M'kulemba kwake, Luka adalemba nkhani ya Mulungu akugwira ntchito kudzera mwa Yesu kuti akhazikitse nyengo yatsopano ya lonjezo ndi kupatsa mphamvu Mzimu kuti anthu a Mulungu akhale anthu a Mulungu ngakhale pakati pa dziko lankhanza. Uwu ndi uthenga womwe mpingo ukufunikirabe lero. Bock onse amafotokoza mitu yayikulu ya Lukan ndikufotokozera zomwe Luka-Machitidwe anachita mu Chipangano Chatsopano komanso mndandanda wa malembo, kupatsa owerenga chidziwitso chakuya komanso chokwanira cha zamulungu za Lukan pamawu akulu a Baibulo.

Kutembenuka mu Luka-Machitidwe: Ntchito Yaumulungu, Kuzindikira Kwaumunthu, ndi Anthu a Mulungu

https://amzn.to/3vwQM1n

Kulapa ndi kutembenuka ndi mitu yayikulu mukutanthauzira kwa Chipangano Chatsopano komanso m'moyo wachikhristu. Komabe, kafukufuku wotembenuka mu Chikhristu choyambirira wavutitsidwa ndi malingaliro am'malingaliro achilendo mdziko la Chipangano Chatsopano. Katswiri wotsogolera wa Chipangano Chatsopano Joel Green amakhulupirira kuti kuyang'anitsitsa nkhani ya Luka-Machitidwe kumafuna kuganiziranso mozama za kutembenuka kwachikhristu. Pogwiritsa ntchito masayansi azidziwitso ndikuwunika umboni wofunikira mu Luka-Machitidwe, bukuli likutsindika momwe moyo wa munthu umakhalira pamene likufufuza kusintha kwa moyo komwe kumadziwika ndi uthenga wakutembenuka, ndikupereka kuwerenga kwatsopano gawo lofunikira la zamulungu za Chipangano Chatsopano.

Charismatic Theology ya St. Luke: Trajectories kuyambira Chipangano Chakale kufikira Luka-Machitidwe

https://amzn.to/3gRTGtw

Kodi tanthauzo la ntchito ya Mzimu Woyera mu Luka-Machitidwe, ndikutanthauzanji lero? Roger Stronstad amapereka kuphunzira kochititsa chidwi komanso kopatsa chidwi kwa Luka ngati wophunzira zaumulungu wachikoka yemwe kumvetsetsa kwake kwa Mzimu kudapangidwa kwathunthu ndikumvetsetsa kwake za Yesu komanso chikhalidwe cha mpingo woyambirira. Stronstad amapeza pneumatology ya Luka m'mbiri yakale yachiyuda ndipo amamuwona Luka ngati wophunzira zaumulungu wodziyimira pawokha yemwe amathandizira kwambiri pneumatology ya New Testament. Ntchitoyi imatsutsa Achiprotestanti achikhalidwe kuti awunikenso zomwe Pentekosti idachita ndikuwunika gawo la Mzimu pophunzitsa anthu a Mulungu ntchito yomwe sanamalize. Kusindikiza kwachiwiri kwasinthidwa ndikusinthidwa monse ndipo kumaphatikizapo mawu oyamba a Mark Allan Powell.

Luke: Wolemba Mbiri & Wophunzitsa zaumulungu

https://amzn.to/3gUarEf

Kupatula mtumwi Paulo, ndiye kuti Luka ndiye wodziwika kwambiri pamndandanda wa Chipangano Chatsopano. Uthenga Wake Wabwino ndi Machitidwe amakhala pafupifupi gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu a Chipangano Chatsopano, ndipo pamodzi mawu awo ofotokozera amatitenga pazaka zopitilira makumi asanu ndi limodzi, kuyambira kubadwa kwa Yesu mpaka kumangidwa kwa Paulo ku Roma. Ndizovuta kulingalira kumvetsetsa kwathu kwa nthawi ya Chipangano Chatsopano popanda zolemba za Luka. Pachifukwa ichi, funso lonena kuti Luke ndi wodalirika lakhala likufufuzidwa mobwerezabwereza. Pakafukufukuyu a Howard Marshall amatsimikizira kudalirika kwa Luke ngati wolemba mbiri. Koma Luka sanangolemba chabe. Iye ndiwonso zamulungu yemwe amapeza kiyi yake yomasulira pamutu waukulu wachipulumutso. Marshall amatipatsa chitsogozo chabwino pankhani yaumulungu ya Luka ya chipulumutso monga momwe imafotokozedwera munkhani ya Uthenga Wabwino, koma nthawi zonse ndimayang'ana momwe ikupitilira mu ntchito yothandizana nayo, Machitidwe a Atumwi. Zolemba zaposachedwa zimayesa maphunziro a Lukan mzaka khumi za 1979-1988.

Machitidwe a Atumwi

https://amzn.to/3nW6uRk

Ndemanga imeneyi ya Machitidwe a Atumwi inalembedwa ndi mmodzi mwa akatswiri odziwika bwino a Chipangano Chatsopano padziko lonse lapansi, ndipo ndemanga imeneyi ya Machitidwe a Atumwi inasindikizidwa koyamba mu 1996. James Dunn amatengera owerenga ku mafunso okhudza wolemba, omvera, tsiku, cholinga, ndi kalembedwe ka zolemba. Kenako amalingalira za mtundu wa mbiri yakale yolembedwa imene timapeza m’nkhani ya Machitidwe, kufotokoza momveka bwino za chiphunzitso chaumulungu cha bukhuli, ndi kupereka ndemanga za m’mabuku pa magwero ndi maphunziro osankhidwa, kuphatikizapo ntchito yofalitsidwa pakati pa 1996 ndi 2016. Ndemanga yonseyi imapereka chidziŵitso ndi Kaonedwe kofunikira powerenga kuti akwaniritse zomwe Dunn amakhulupirira kuti ndi buku losangalatsa kwambiri mu Chipangano Chatsopano.

New Century Bible, St. Luke: Introduction, Revised Version With Notes, Index and Maps (Kusindikizidwa Kwakale)

Buku lovomerezeka la Luka lokhala ndi mawu am'munsi komanso ndemanga (1906)

https://amzn.to/3xCEGp9

Zaulere pa Zakale Zosungidwa pa intaneti:

https://archive.org/details/stlukeintroducti42aden/page/n11/mode/2up

Kuyamba / Ubatizo wa Mzimu Woyera

Yesu ndi Mzimu: Kafukufuku Wokhudzana ndi Chipembedzo ndi Chikhulupiriro cha Yesu ndi Akhristu Oyambirira Monga Awonetsedwa M'Chipangano Chatsopano

https://amzn.to/3e1rr9Y

M'buku lochititsa chidwi ili, James DG Dunn amafufuza momwe zinthu zachipembedzo zimakhalira zomwe zinali patsogolo pa Chikhristu. Dunn amayamba kuyang'ana pazachipembedzo cha Yesu, makamaka makamaka pa zomwe adakumana nazo za Mulungu potengera za umwana wake komanso kuzindikira kwake kwa Mzimu. Amaganiziranso funso loti ngati Yesu anali wachikoka. Kenako Dunn akuwunika zokumana nazo zachipembedzo zoyambirira zachikhristu, makamaka kuwuka kwa akufa, Pentekoste, ndi zizindikilo ndi zodabwitsa zomwe Luka anafotokoza. Pomaliza, a Dunn awunika zomwe zimachitika ku Paul zomwe zimapangitsa Paul kukhala wamphamvu komanso zomwe zidawumba chikhristu cha Pauline komanso moyo wachipembedzo m'matchalitchi ake.

Ubatizo wa Mzimu Woyera

https://amzn.to/3e3Rz3P

Izi zachikale, zomwe zidasindikizidwa papepala, zimabweretsa owerenga ku mbali yapadera kwambiri ya zamulungu za Pentekosti - kubatizidwa mu Mzimu Woyera. James Dunn amawona ubatizo wam'madzi ngati chinthu chimodzi chokha mu Chipangano Chatsopano cha kutembenuka mtima ndi kuyambitsa. Mphatso ya Mzimu, amakhulupirira kuti, ndiye chinthu chofunikira kwambiri. Kwa olemba Chipangano Chatsopano okhawo omwe adalandira Mzimu Woyera ndiamene angatchedwe Akhristu. Kwa iwo, kulandila Mzimu kunali kotsimikizika kwambiri ndipo nthawi zambiri kunali kwakukulu - chochitika chofunikira komanso chanyengo pakusintha-kumene Mkhristu amakumbukiridwa nthawi zambiri pokumbutsidwa za chiyambi cha chikhulupiriro chake chachikhristu. 

Kuyamba Kwachikhristu ndi Kubatizidwa ndi Mzimu Woyera: Kachiwiri Kosinthidwa (Mabuku a Michael Glazier)

https://amzn.to/3gPOPsN

Mpaka pano chiphunzitso cha ubatizo wa Mzimu Woyera chakhazikitsidwa pamalemba angapo, omwe kutanthauzira kwawo kudatsutsidwa. Kukayika uku kunapereka mthunzi wake kwa iwo omwe amalimbikitsa ubatizo wa Mzimu Woyera.

Tsopano pali umboni watsopano wopezeka m'mabuku oyamba a anthu olemba Baibulo (Tertullian, Hilary waku Poitiers, Cyril waku Yerusalemu, John Chrysostom, Philoxenus, ndi Asiriya) zomwe zikuwonetsa kuti chomwe chimatchedwa ubatizo wa Mzimu Woyera chinali chophatikizira pakuyambitsa kwachikhristu (ubatizo , chitsimikiziro, Ukalistia). Chifukwa inali gawo loyambitsa Mpingo, sinali nkhani yopembedza payekha, koma yopembedza pagulu. Chifukwa chake zidali zachikhalidwe.

Anthu Achikhristu Amzimu: Mbiri Yotsimikizika Ya Uzimu Wa Pentekosti kuyambira Mpingo Woyamba Kufikira Masiku Ano

https://amzn.to/3ujekqx

Pakati pamagulu onse a Dziko Lachikristu, gulu la Pentekoste / Charismatic ndi lachiwiri kukula kwa Tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika, ndikukula komwe sikuwonetsa kuzimiririka. Otsatira ake alengeza kuti Pentekosti, yomwe idayamba ku Azusa Street ku 1906, sinachitikepo m'mbiri yachikhristu kuyambira mzaka zoyambirira za Mpingo pomwe idalandira ziwonetsero za Mzimu Woyera monga machiritso auzimu, zozizwitsa, ndi kulankhula m'malilime. Komabe ngakhale zingakhale zazikulu kwambiri kukula ndi kukula kwake, a Stanley M. Burgess akutsutsa zomwe sizinachitikepo m'lingaliro. Mu Christian Peoples of the Spirit, Burgess amatenga umboni wolemba kwa zaka zikwi ziwiri za anthu ndi magulu omwe awonetsa mphatso zauzimu za Chipentekoste / zamatsenga, kupembedza, ndi chidziwitso.

Zaka 100 za Mzimu Woyera: Zaka 1901 za Kukonzanso kwa Pentekoste ndi Charismatic, 2001-XNUMX

https://amzn.to/3vzjTku

Mbiri yotsimikizika ya kayendetsedwe ka Chipentekoste ndi Charismatic komanso chidwi chokhudza anthu omwe sali mgululi, Zaka XNUMX za Mzimu Woyera ikufotokoza mwatsatanetsatane nkhani yozizwitsa yakukula kwa Pentekosti / charismatic - ku US komanso padziko lonse lapansi. Bukuli lili ndi machaputala asanu a wolemba mbiri wamkulu wa Pentekoste, Vinson Synan, ndi zopereka zina ndi atsogoleri otsogolera a Pentekosti / Charismatic – David Barrett, David Daniels, David Edwin Harrell Jr., Peter Hocken, Sue Hyatt, Gary McGee, ndi Ted Olsen.

Theology/Christology

Chiphunzitso cha Utatu: Chodzipweteka Chachikhristu

https://amzn.to/3vBdnd1

Olembawo amatsutsa lingaliro loti kupembedza kwa Mulungu m'modzi kumayimiriridwa ndi lingaliro la Utatu wa Mulungu ndikuwonetsa kuti mkati mwa malire a mndandanda wa malembo Yesu avomerezedwa ngati Mesiya, Mwana wa Mulungu, koma osati Mulungu Mwiniwake. Zochitika zapambuyo pake za Christological zoyambira m'zaka za zana lachiwirizi zinaimira molakwika chiphunzitso cha m'Baibulo cha Mulungu ndi Khristu posintha mawu owonetsera a Atate ndi Mwana m'Baibulo. Kukula kwangozi kumeneku kunayala maziko a chikhulupiriro chosinthidwa, chosagwirizana ndi malemba chomwe chiyenera kutsutsidwa. Bukuli likuyenera kukhala kufotokoza kotsimikizika kwa Christology yozikika, monga momwe inali pachiyambi, mu Baibulo lachiheberi. Olembawo akupempha mwamphamvu kuti amvetsetse za Mulungu ndi Yesu malinga ndi zolemba zoyambirira zachikhristu.

Kubwezeretsa Khristu Wotchulidwa M'Baibulo: Kodi Yesu Ndi Mulungu?

https://amzn.to/2QCadar

Bukuli likuwunikira mozama chiphunzitso cha Utatu, ndikuwunika momwe lidakulira ndikufufuza zamaphunziro, zanzeru, komanso zamulungu zomwe zidapanga chiphunzitso chachikhristu ichi. Ngakhale kulimba mtima kwa Utatu ku Chikhristu, ndikofunikira kwake ngati chimodzi mwazofunikira zomwe zimasiyanitsa chikhristu ndi Chiyuda ndi Chisilamu, chiphunzitsochi sichinapangidwe mokwanira m'malemba ovomerezeka achikhristu. M'malo mwake, zidasinthika pakuphatikizika kwa malembedwe osankhidwa ndi malingaliro anzeru ndi achipembedzo amikhalidwe yakale yachigiriki. Marian Hillar akuwunikanso kukula kwa lingaliro la Utatu pazaka zophunzitsika zachikhristu kuyambira pachiyambi mwa malingaliro akale achi Greek komanso malingaliro achipembedzo mdera la Mediterranean. Amatchula magwero angapo amalingaliro a Utatu omwe ambiri sanasamalepo, kuphatikiza zolembedwa zachi Greek pakati pa Plato za Numenius ndi zolemba zofananira za Aigupto ndi zipilala zoyimira umulungu monga chinthu chachitatu.

Khristu Asanakhulupirire Zikhulupiriro: Kupezanso Yesu Wakale

https://amzn.to/3naoyZr

Akhristu ambiri sazindikira kuti malingaliro awo akumadzulo ndi osiyana ndi iwo omwe adalemba zolemba zoyambirira za moyo wa Yesu. M'busa Jeff Deuble apereka mayankho omveka bwino kuti apereke umboni wa m'Baibulo patsogolo pazikhulupiriro zamtsogolo zamatchalitchi zomwe zidakopeka ndi malingaliro anzeru zachi Greek, kuti apezenso Chikhristu chosavuta, chodetsedwa.

Pofotokoza mwatsatanetsatane kuchokera ku zolemba za m'Baibulo, mbiri, Chiyuda, ndi Chikhristu za momwe otsatira oyambirira a Khristu amaganizira za iye, bukuli likulonjeza kuzindikira kwatsopano ndi kumvetsetsa kopindulitsa kwa Khristu. Kuposa kungophunzitsa, Khristu Asanakhulupirire Zikhulupiriro ndikuyitanidwa kuti mufufuze za Yesu Mesiya, ndikulemekeza ndi chisomo.

Mulungu Woona Yekha: Kafukufuku Wokhulupirira Mulungu Mmodzi

https://amzn.to/3eKXyd9

Chikhulupiriro cha Baibulo sichophatikiza zautatu koma mosagonjera. Uthenga wa Mulungu kwa anthu ndi kuyitanira ku chikhulupiriro mwa Yehova, Mulungu yekhayo wa Israeli. Kukhulupirira Mulungu m'modzi kunakhazikika m'Chilamulo ndi Aneneri, ndikukula m'mitima ya anthu a Mulungu. Yesu adatsimikiza kuti Mulungu ndi m'modzi yekha popemphera kwa Atate wake, "Moyo wosatha ndi uwu, kuti akadziwe Inu Mulungu woona yekha, ndi Yesu Khristu amene mudamtuma." Pakafukufukuyu wonena za kupembedza Mulungu m'modzi yekha komanso za utatu woti kuli Mulungu m'modzi, timasamala kwambiri zolemba za m'Baibulo, makamaka Yohane 1: 1-18, omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochirikiza chiphunzitso cha Utatu. Bukuli limamaliza ndi mawu osangalatsa mukamatulutsa madalitso aulemerero kwa anthu a Mulungu mu chowonadi chakuti Mawu adasandulika thupi mwa Yesu Khristu ndikukhala pakati pathu.

Kodi Utatu Ndi Chiyani?: Kuganizira za Atate, Mwana, ndi Mzimu Woyera 

https://amzn.to/332xUei

Mukawona kuti Utatu ukusokoneza, simuli nokha! Kodi zikutanthauzanji kunena kuti Mulungu ndi “Anthu atatu m'chifanizo chimodzi”? Icho mphamvu amatanthauza zinthu zingapo, ndipo zamvedwa m'njira zingapo ndi akatswiri azaumulungu. Koma motani ayenera amamvetsetsedwa, ndipo amatanthauza chiyani poyamba? Bukuli likuwunikira kuwunika komwe kukukuta nkhaniyi, kukuthandizani kudziwa zambiri za tanthauzo ndi mbiri yamalingaliro autatu, kuti muwone zosankha zosiyanasiyana ndikusanthula m'malemba ndi maso atsopano.

Mulungu wa Yesu Potengera Chiphunzitso Chachikhristu

https://amzn.to/3tevPa8

Poyambirira kwambiri m'mbiri ya Tchalitchi, zisonkhezero zochokera ku dziko lachi Greek ndi Roma zidakanikiza mwamphamvu Mulungu wachikhalidwe cha Chiyuda kudzera munzeru zachikunja. Nkhondo zachipembedzo zomwe zinatsatira zidabweretsa zovuta zazikulu ku Chikhristu, ndipo malamulo achifumu adavomereza nthano zonena za Mulungu nkhani yokhudza moyo kapena imfa. Mu The God of Jesus in Light of Christian Dogma, Chandler akuyamba kafukufuku wofufuza za mbiri yachitukuko ya zamulungu zovomerezeka ndi zomwe zakhudza kumasulira kotchuka kwa Chipangano Chatsopano. Yotumizidwa m'magawo awiri, yoyamba imapereka chithunzi chazithunzi zakukopa kwachi Greek pachikhulupiriro chachikhristu choyambirira, pomwe chachiwiri chimabwerezanso kutanthauzira kwa Baibulo. Polembera ophunzira achikhristu odzipereka komanso anthu achidwi, Chandler molimba mtima amapempha mbiri yakale komanso maphunziro amakono kuti atidziwitse za miyambo yathu yopatulika kwambiri, ndikutsutsa owerenga kuti asiyanitse malingaliro amenewo ndi mawu a Yesu.

Mulungu m'modzi ndi Ambuye m'modzi: Kuganizira mwala wapangodya pa Chikhulupiriro Chachikhristu

https://amzn.to/3vxdG8L

Polemba nkhani yochititsa chidwi komanso yolimbikitsa ya umodzi wa umboni wa m'Baibulo wonena za umunthu weniweni wa Yesu, "Adamu womaliza," olembawo akuwulula kufunikira kwakukulu kwa mbali ziwiri zakubwera kwake: kuzunzika ndi ulemerero. Amayang'ana Khristu yomwe imalola kuyamika kwathunthu kumvera kwake kosasunthika kwa Mulungu poyesedwa, kuzunzika ngakhale imfa yonyazitsa. Wotsimikizika ndi kuuka kwake, adalowa muulemerero ndipo tsopano akukhala wofanana ndi Mulungu, wofanana ndi ubale wa Yosefe ndi Farao m'buku la Genesis. Chifukwa Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane nthawi zambiri umakhala wokha ndipo umakwezedwa kuti ukhazikitse ndikulimbikitsa Christology yovomerezeka, olembawo amafufuza mozama chithunzi chapadera cha Khristu mu "Uthenga Wachinayi". Amachita bwino kuyika umboni wa Yohane mogwirizana komanso momveka bwino m'mbali mwa chithunzi cha ulosi wonena za Mesiya. 

Mulungu ndi Yesu; Kufufuza Kusiyanitsa kwa Baibulo

https://amzn.to/3hXk7P3

Wolemba yemwe kale anali wokhulupirira umodzi (modalist), Joel W. Hemphill, kuti afotokoze ndime 760 za NT zomwe zimasiyanitsa Mulungu ndi Yesu. Ndime izi zalembedwa mwandondomeko monga momwe zimawonekera m'Malemba Oyera. Pambuyo pazaka 50 ngati mtumiki wa Pentekoste wa Oneness, a Joel Hemphill adazindikira kuti Chiphunzitso cha Utatu sichili m'malemba ayi, komanso chiphunzitso chaumodzi chamakono chikusowanso. Pomwe M'bale Hemphill akugwiritsabe dzina la Yesu - Uthenga wa Utumwi, wafika pakuzindikira kuti Yesu Name Apostolics mu Bukhu la Machitidwe sanali kulengeza za Umodzi pambuyo pa Baibulo za Mulungu.

Zolemba pokhudzana ndi chiphunzitso chaumodzi (modalism) kuchokera kwa omwe kale anali okhulupilira aumodzi: https://www.21stcr.org/subjects/oneness-pentecostalism/oneness-pentecostalism-articles/

Kuchokera pa Logos kupita ku Utatu: Evolution of Religious Beliefs kuchokera ku Pythagoras kupita ku Tertullian

https://amzn.to/3e7eQ5d

Bukuli likuwunikira mozama chiphunzitso cha Utatu, ndikuwunika momwe lidakulira ndikufufuza zamaphunziro, zanzeru, komanso zamulungu zomwe zidapanga chiphunzitso chachikhristu ichi. Ngakhale kulimba mtima kwa Utatu ku Chikhristu, ndikofunikira kwake ngati chimodzi mwazofunikira zomwe zimasiyanitsa chikhristu ndi Chiyuda ndi Chisilamu, chiphunzitsochi sichinapangidwe mokwanira m'malemba ovomerezeka achikhristu. M'malo mwake, zidasinthika pakuphatikizika kwa malembedwe osankhidwa ndi malingaliro anzeru ndi achipembedzo amikhalidwe yakale yachigiriki. Marian Hillar akuwunikanso kukula kwa lingaliro la Utatu pazaka zophunzitsika zachikhristu kuyambira pachiyambi mwa malingaliro akale achi Greek komanso malingaliro achipembedzo mdera la Mediterranean. Amatchula magwero angapo amalingaliro a Utatu omwe ambiri sanasamalepo, kuphatikiza zolembedwa zachi Greek pakati pa Plato za Numenius ndi zolemba zofananira za Aigupto ndi zipilala zoyimira umulungu monga chinthu chachitatu.

Osagwirizana nawo: Mbiri Yachidule

https://amzn.to/3t6u4LV

Mbiri yayifupi iyi ya Unitarianism ikufufuza mwachidule chiyambi ndi kupita patsogolo kwachipembedzo chokomera anthu padziko lonse lapansi chokhazikitsidwa ndi mfundo za ufulu, kulingalira, ndi kulolerana. Kudzera mu bungwe lawo, Poland ndi Transylvania adakhala ndi nthawi yololerana pazipembedzo. Ku Great Britain, monga apainiya amakono kwamaphunziro apamwamba amasiku ano ku Dissenting Academies, adagwiritsa ntchito zowunikira pofufuza zachipembedzo, sayansi, ndi umunthu. Ku United States, adatsogolera gulu la Transcendentalist, maluwa oyamba oyamba achikhalidwe cha America. Bukuli limafotokoza mbiri yazipembedzo zosiyana za Unitarian (ndi Unitarian Universalist) ku Europe, Great Britain, ndi United States, ndikukhudza magulu atsopano omwe abuka, kapena akukonzekera, kwina kulikonse padziko lapansi .

Islam

Mu Mthunzi wa Lupanga: Kubadwa kwa Chisilamu ndikukwera kwa Global Arab Empire

https://amzn.to/2PDFHfL

Kusintha kwa ufumu wachiarabu ndiimodzi mwazinthu zazikulu kwambiri m'mbiri yakale, nkhani yolemera modabwitsa pamasewera, mawonekedwe, komanso kuchita bwino. M'mbiri yosangalatsa komanso yosangalatsa iyi - wachitatu m'mabuku atatu azakale - Holland akufotokoza momwe Aluya adakhalira ndi ulamuliro waukulu kwambiri kwazaka zambiri, kuthana ndi zovuta zomwe zidawoneka ngati zovuta kuti apange chitukuko chamfumu zomwe pirira mpaka lero. Pokhudzidwa kwambiri ndi zochitika zofunikira kwambiri m'nthawi yathu ino, Holland ikugwirizana ndi nkhani yosangalatsa ya kukwera kwachisilamu kumavuto ndi mikangano yapano.

Korani ndi Baibulo: Malembo ndi Ndemanga

https://amzn.to/3u9Hs3k

Katswiri wodziwika bwino wachipembedzo a Gabriel Said Reynolds akufotokoza zaka mazana ambiri za maphunziro a Qur'ānic ndi a Baibulo kuti apereke ndemanga mwamphamvu komanso povumbulutsa momwe mabuku oyerawa amalumikizidwira. Reynolds akuwonetsa momwe zilembo zachiyuda ndi zachikhristu, zifanizo, komanso zolembalemba zimadziwika kwambiri mu Qur'ān, kuphatikiza nkhani za angelo akugwada pamaso pa Adamu ndi Yesu akuyankhula ali wakhanda. Kupereka kofunikira kumeneku pamaphunziro azipembedzo kumafotokoza Qur'ān yomasuliridwa molingana ndi mawu achiyuda komanso achikhristu. Ikufotokoza momveka bwino zokambirana pakati pa akatswiri azipembedzo zokhudzana ndi ubale wamalembawa, ndikupereka mawonekedwe atsopano oti tiwone kulumikizana kwamphamvu komwe kumalumikiza zipembedzo zazikuluzikulu zitatuzi.

Maphunziro a Qur'an: Magwero ndi Njira Zamasuliridwe Amalemba

https://amzn.to/3bayImb

Mmodzi mwa akatswiri anzeru kwambiri pankhani yazachisilamu anali a John Wansbrough (1928-2002), Pulofesa wa Semitic Study ndi Pro-Director ku London University's School of Oriental and African Study. Pofufuza mbiri yakale ya chiyambi cha Chisilamu ngati mbiri yosadalirika komanso yotengera ziphunzitso zachipembedzo, Wansbrough idapereka matanthauzidwe atsopano mosiyana kwambiri ndi malingaliro a chiphunzitso chachi Muslim komanso akatswiri ambiri aku Western. Kuzama kwakukulu kwa zilembo za Korani kutengera kusanthula mawonekedwe. Pozindikira kupitilira kwa mafano okhulupirira Mulungu m'modzi ochokera ku magwero achiyuda ndi achikhristu, adatanthauzira kukwera kwachisilamu ngati chitukuko cha gulu loyambirira lachiyuda ndi chikhristu. Pamene gululi lidasintha ndikudzipatula lokha kuchokera ku mizu yake yachiyuda ndi chikhristu, Korani idasinthidwanso ndipo idasinthirabe kwazaka zopitilira zana. Wansbrough adatsimikiza kuti kulembedwa kwa mawu omwe masiku ano timati Quran, komanso kutuluka kwa lingaliro la "Islam," mwina sikunachitike mpaka kumapeto kwa zaka za zana lachisanu ndi chitatu, zaka zopitilira 1977 atamwalira Muhammad.

Asilamu: Zikhulupiriro ndi Zochita Zawo (Laibulale ya Zipembedzo ndi Zochita Zawo)

https://amzn.to/3eKlXzt

Asilamu: Zikhulupiriro ndi Zochita Zawo imapereka kafukufuku wazakale zachiSilamu ndikuganiza kuyambira nthawi yachipembedzo mpaka pano. Imafufuza zinthu zapadera zomwe zaphatikizana ndikupanga Chisilamu, makamaka, Qur'ān ndi malingaliro a Mneneri Muḥammad, ndikuwunika momwe malingalirowa agwirizanirana kuti akope njira ya Chisilamu mpaka pano. Kuphatikiza zida zoyambira zomwe zimafotokoza zamaphunziro aposachedwa komanso zomwe zachitika posachedwa mdziko lachiSilamu, Bernheimer ndi Rippin amayambitsa chipembedzo chofunikira kwambiri ichi, kuphatikiza masomphenya ena achisilamu opezeka mu Shi'ism ndi Sufism, mwachidule, zovuta, komanso zotsitsimutsa. Kusintha kwachisanu kwakukula ndikukulitsidwa kumasinthidwa monse ndikuphatikizira mabokosi atsopano.

Mzera Woyamba wa Chisilamu: Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750

https://amzn.to/3nzY0yM

Buku la Gerald Hawting lakhala likudziwika kuti ndi kafukufuku woyambira munthawi yovutayi m'mbiri ya Aluya ndi Chisilamu. Tsopano yapezekanso, ndikuwonjezera mawu oyamba a wolemba omwe amafufuza zopereka zaposachedwa kwambiri zamaphunziro m'munda. Ndizachidziwikire kulandiridwa ndi ophunzira komanso ophunzira mofanana.

Kuwona Chisilamu Monga Ena Anachiwonera: Kufufuza ndi Kuunika Zolemba Zachikhristu, Zachiyuda ndi Zoroastrian Zakale Zachisilamu

https://amzn.to/3eEj82Y

Bukuli limapereka njira yatsopano pamafunso okhumudwitsa amomwe angalembere mbiri yakale ya Chisilamu. Gawo loyambalo likufotokoza za zomwe Asilamu ndi omwe sanali Asilamu ochokera ku Middle East m'zaka za zana lachisanu ndi chiwiri ndi chisanu ndi chitatu ndikuti pochepetsa kusiyana pakati pa miyambo iwiriyi, yomwe yakhazikitsidwa ndi maphunziro amakono, titha kuzindikira bwino kwa nthawi yovutayi. Gawo lachiwiri limafufuza mwatsatanetsatane magwero ndikusanthula zolemba zina za 120 zomwe sizachisilamu, zonse zomwe zimafotokoza za zaka zana loyamba ndi theka la Chisilamu (pafupifupi AD 620-780). Gawo lachitatu limapereka zitsanzo, malinga ndi momwe adanenera mu gawo loyambalo komanso zomwe zaperekedwa mgawo lachiwiri, momwe munthu angalembere mbiriyakale ino. Gawo lachinayi limakhala ngati maulendo azokambirana pamitu yosiyanasiyana, monga njira ya Chisilamu, chodabwitsa cha kutembenukira ku Chisilamu, kukonza njira zodziwira kulunjika kwa pemphero, ndi kugonjetsedwa kwa Aigupto.

Kugulitsa kwa Meccan ndi Kukula kwa Chisilamu

https://amzn.to/3uccAz5

Patricia Crone amasinkhasinkha imodzi mwazikhulupiriro zovomerezeka kwambiri m'mbiri zamasiku ano za chiyambi cha Chisilamu, poganiza kuti Mecca anali malo amalonda opambana potumiza zonunkhira zonunkhira ku Mediterranean. Pofotokoza kuti malingaliro ochiritsira amachokera ku mbiri yakale yamalonda pakati pa kumwera kwa Arabia ndi Mediterranean pafupifupi zaka 600 m'mbuyomu kuposa zaka za Muhammad, Dr. Crone akuti njira yapaulendo yomwe yafotokozedwa m'mabukuwa inali ya kanthawi kochepa komanso kuti Asilamu magwero sanenapo chilichonse chazinthuzi. Kuphatikiza pakusintha malingaliro athu pantchito yamalonda, wolemba awunikanso umboni wachipembedzo cha Mecca chisanachitike Chisilamu ndipo akufuna kufotokoza momwe magwero omwe tiyenera kukhazikitsiranso chithunzi chathu cha kubadwa kwa chipembedzo chatsopano mu Arabiya. Patricia Crone ndi pulofesa wa mbiri yakale ya Chisilamu ku Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.

Crossroads to Islam: Chiyambi cha Chipembedzo cha Aluya ndi Arab State (Islamic Study)

https://amzn.to/3vyCPA1

Katswiri wofukula za m'mabwinja Yehuda D. Nevo ndi wofufuza Judith Koren apereka lingaliro losintha la chiyambi ndi chitukuko cha dziko lachisilamu ndi chipembedzo. Pomwe ntchito zambiri pamutuwu zimachokera ku zolemba za Asilamu, Crossroads to Islam imawunikiranso umboni wofunikira womwe udasiyidwa mpaka pano: zolemba za anthu wamba (achikhristu), zofukula m'mabwinja, numismatics, makamaka miyala zolemba. Malingaliro awa adayala maziko a lingaliro lamphamvu la chitukuko cha Chisilamu.Malinga ndi a Nevo ndi Koren, umboni ukusonyeza kuti Aluya anali achikunja pomwe amatenga mphamvu kumadera omwe kale anali kulamulidwa ndi Ufumu wa Byzantine. Amanena kuti Aluya adatenga ulamuliro popanda kulimbana, chifukwa Byzantium anali atachoka m'derali kalekale. Atakhazikitsa ulamuliro, gulu latsopanoli la Aluya lidayamba kutsatira chipembedzo chimodzi chokha chotsogozedwa ndi Chiyuda-Chikhristu, chomwe adakumana nacho m'magawo omwe adangopeza kumene, ndipo pang'onopang'ono adayamba kukhala chipembedzo chachiarabu. Mpaka pakati pa zaka za zana lachisanu ndi chitatu ntchitoyi idamalizidwa. Kumasulira uku kwaumboni kumatsimikizira malingaliro a akatswiri ena, omwe pazifukwa zosiyanasiyana amati Chisilamu ndi Korani yoyambitsidwa kale zidayamba.

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