Kukhulupilika kwa Mateyu Part 1, Introduction & Farrer Theory
Kukhulupilika kwa Mateyu Part 1, Introduction & Farrer Theory

Kukhulupilika kwa Mateyu Part 1, Introduction & Farrer Theory

Kukhulupilika kwa Mateyu, Gawo 1

Matthew ali ndi nkhani zingapo zomwe zimapangitsa kukhulupilika kwake kukaika. Choyamba, zolemba zoyambirira za Mateyu zimaperekedwa zokhudzana ndi komwe kunachokera, kulemba, ndi kapangidwe kake. Lingaliro la Farrer limapereka lingaliro lina lowonjezera loti Mateyu akhale ndi kukayikira kowonjezereka poganizira kuti mwina Luka sanawerenge zambiri za zomwe zili mu Mateyo. Kutsutsana kwakukulu kwa Mateyu ndi nkhani zina za Mauthenga Abwino kukuwonetsedwa mgawo lotsatirali. Zambiri zotsutsana mu Chipangano Chatsopano ndi Mateyu zotsutsana ndi Marko, Luka, ndi Yohane. Nkhani zina ndi Mateyu zimafotokozedwera m'mawu ovuta komanso chilankhulo chosagwirizana kuphatikiza mavesi omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochita Chiyuda ndi omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi omenyera ufulu achi Muslim. Pomaliza, umboni ukuperekedwa motsutsana ndi mawu amwambo a Mateyu 28:19 omwe akuwonetsa kuti ubatizo wa utatu udawonjezeredwa pambuyo pake ndipo siwoyambira kwa Mateyu.

Zolemba Zoyamba Zokhudza Mateyu:

Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu udalembedwa pambuyo poti Uthenga wa Marko udalembedwa ndipo mwina chaka cha 70 AD chisanafike[1] (chaka chakuwonongedwa kwa Kachisi ku Yerusalemu). Matewu adadalira Marko pazambiri zake popeza 95% ya Uthenga Wabwino wa Marko imapezeka mkati mwa Mateyu ndipo 53% yamalembawo ndi mawu (mawu-ndi mawu) ochokera kwa Marko. Uthengawu akuti umatchulidwa ndi Mateyu chifukwa chongoganiza kuti zina mwazinthu zapadera mwina zidachokera kwa Mateyu (wophunzira wa Yesu yemwe kale anali wokhometsa msonkho) ngakhale zambiri zomwe zimachokera ku Uthenga Wabwino wa Maliko monga ambiri amaziwonera ndizokongoletsa pa Maliko. Chodziwikiratu ndikuti Mateyu ndi kuphatikiza kwa zopangira osati za wophunzira m'modzi kapena gwero limodzi. Kutchulidwa mu Uthenga Wabwino "malinga ndi Mateyu" kunawonjezeredwa pambuyo pake. Umboni woti abambo a Tchalitchi amati ndi Mateyu umafikira m'zaka za zana lachiwiri.

Mateyu sanapangidwe ngati mbiri yakale. M'malo mwake, Mateyu ali ndi magawo ena ophunzitsira ndi magwiridwe antchito. Matthew ndi ntchito yopanga yopanga zolemba zokhala ndi zolemba zazikulu zisanu ndi chimodzi. Wolembayo ayenera kuti anali wotsatira wachiyuda wa Yesu yemwe sanali womasuka kugwiritsa ntchito mawu oti "Mulungu". Mwachitsanzo, wolemba amapewa kugwiritsa ntchito mawu oti "Mulungu" pogwiritsa ntchito mawu oti "Ufumu Wakumwamba" kambirimbiri motsutsana ndi "Ufumu wa Mulungu" monga momwe agwiritsidwira ntchito mu Marko ndi Luka. Mateyu akutulutsanso zovuta zina zomwe Akhristu achiyuda oyamba okha ndi omwe amakhudzidwa nazo. Akatswiri ena amakhulupirira kuti Mateyu poyambirira adalembedwa mchilankhulo cha Chi Semiti (Chiheberi kapena Chiaramu) ndipo pambuyo pake adamasuliridwa m'Chigiriki. Ndizotheka kuti panali matembenuzidwe a Mateyu onse achiheberi (kapena Chiaramu) kuphatikiza pa Chi Greek. Mabaibulo awa atha kukhala osiyanasiyana polemekezana. Buku loyambirira kwambiri la Mateyu lomwe latsalira ndi la m'zaka za zana lachinayi.

Farrer Theory monga maziko owonjezera kukayikira Mateyu:

Farrer hypothesis (yemwenso amadziwika kuti Farrer-Goulder-Goodacre hypothesis) ndi chiphunzitso chakuti Uthenga Wabwino wa Marko unalembedwa koyamba, kenako Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu kenako wolemba Uthenga Wabwino wa Luka adagwiritsa ntchito Marko ndi Mateyu ngati gwero . Izi zidalimbikitsidwa ndi akatswiri achingerezi kuphatikiza Austin Farrer, yemwe adalemba Kugawa Ndi Q mu 1955[2], ndi akatswiri ena kuphatikiza Michael Golder ndi Mark Goodacre.[3] Lingaliro la Farrer lili ndi mwayi wosavuta, popeza palibe chifukwa choti gwero lotengera "Q" lingapangidwire ndi ophunzira. Othandizira chiphunzitso cha Farrer amapereka umboni wamphamvu kuti Luka adagwiritsa ntchito mabuku onse am'mbuyomu (Marko ndi Mateyu) ndikuti Mateyu adalipo kale Luka.[4]

 Kulimbikira kwa "Q" komwe kunasowa kumachokera makamaka pakulingalira kuti wolemba Luka sakanapatula zambiri za Mateyu ngati akanatha kuzipeza ngati gwero. Komabe, wolemba Luka adazindikira kuti panali nkhani zambiri zisanachitike. Mawu ake oyamba akuwonetsa kufunikira, kutengera pakuwunikanso kwa mboni, kuti apereke akaunti mwadongosolo kuti zitsimikizire pazomwe amaphunzitsidwa. Izi zikutanthauza kuti Luka sanatchule zambiri za Mateyu chifukwa Mateyo adalakwitsa kwambiri. Chotsutsa china ku Farrer Theory ndikuti Luka adafupikitsidwa kwambiri m'mawu ena kuposa Mateyu motero Luka akuwonetsa zolemba zakale kwambiri. Komabe ngati Luka akufuna kufotokoza mwachidule komanso mwadongosolo, zikuwoneka kuti Luka adasinthiratu "kutulutsa" kuchokera m'mavesi a Mateyu kutengera zomwe amakhulupirira kuti ndizabwino kwambiri komanso umboni wotsimikizira umboni womwe anali nawo. Wolemba Luka akunena izi motsogola kwake:

Luka 1: 1-4 (ESV)1 Chifukwa ambiri adakwaniritsa kulemba fanizo la zomwe zidakwaniritsidwa pakati pathu, 2 monganso iwo amene adazipenyerera kuyambira pachiyambi, ndipo adatipatsa mawu. 3 zinandikomera inenso, popeza ndinatsatira zinthu zonse kwa nthawi yayitali, kuti ndilembereni akaunti yoyenera inu, Teofili, 4 kuti mukhale otsimikizika pazomwe mudaphunzitsidwa.

 Mfundo zazikuluzikulu zokhulupirira kuti wolemba Luka anali ndi mwayi wopeza Maliko ndi Mateyu asanalembe Luka ndi izi:

  • Ngati Luka adawerenga Mateyu, funso lomwe Q amayankha silimabuka (lingaliro la Q lidapangidwa kuti liyankhanitse funso loti Mateyo ndi Luka adapeza zotani potengera kuti samadziwa za uthenga wabwino wina ndi mnzake).
  • Tilibe umboni wochokera m'malemba akale achikristu kuti chilichonse chonga Q chidakhalako.
  • Ophunzira akafuna kuyambiranso Q kuchokera kuzinthu zodziwika bwino za Mateyu ndi Luka, zotsatira zake sizimawoneka ngati uthenga wabwino ndipo sizingakhale ndi mbiri yonena zaimfa ndi kuukitsidwa kwa Yesu ndikuphatikizanso nkhani za Yohane Mbatizi, ubatizo wa Yesu ndi mayesero mchipululu, ndi kuchiritsidwa kwake kwa mtumiki wa Kenturiyo. Lingaliro lonena za Q silikanakhala konse kukhala mbiri yabwino koma likanakhala loperewera kwambiri ngati nkhani.
  • Mtsutso wodziwika kwambiri pa lingaliro la Farrer ndikuti pali magawo ambiri pomwe mawu a Mateyu ndi Luka amavomereza pakupanga zosintha zazing'ono ku zomwe za Marko (chomwe chimatchedwa miyambo iwiri). Izi zikanatsatira mwachilengedwe ngati Luka anali kugwiritsa ntchito Mateyu ndi Marko, koma ndizovuta kufotokoza ngati akugwiritsa ntchito Mark ndi Q. Streeter amagawa izi m'magulu asanu ndi limodzi ndikupeza malingaliro osiyana a aliyense.
  • Farrer akuti "[h] kutsutsana kumapeza mphamvu pazowerengeka zochepa pomwe lingaliro lililonse limafunikira kuyitanidwa; koma oweluza otsutsa adzanena mosaganizira kuti kuchepa kwa zochitika za lingaliro lirilonse kuli kofanana ndendende ndi kuchulukitsa kwa malingaliro omwewo. Palibe amene anganene kuti kuchonderera kwa Dr. Streeter [kwa "Q"] sikungatheke, koma wina ayenera kuvomereza kuti ndi pempho lotsutsana ndi umboni wowonekera ".

Apanso, Tanthauzo lake loti wolemba Luka anali ndi buku la Mateyu polemba Luka ndikuti zomwe zili mu Mateyu ziyenera kuti zidachokapo pa umboni womveka wa mboni ndi atumiki a mawuwo ndikuti zina mwazinthu zomwe zidasiyidwa mu Mateyu ziyenera kuti zinali zolakwika

[1] Zowonjezera, RH (1994). Matthew: A Commentary on His Handbook for a Mixed Church under Persecution (Kope Lachiwiri). Grand Rapids, MI: Kampani Yofalitsa ya William B Eerdmans

[2] Austin M. Farrer, Pogawira Q, mu DE Nineham (mkonzi.), Kafukufuku Wamauthenga Abwino: Zolemba Pokumbukira RH Lightfoot, Oxford: Blackwell, 1955, masamba 55-88,

[3] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "Farrer hypothesis" Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Farrer_hypothesis&oldid=980915501 (yofikira pa Okutobala 9, 2020).

[4] Chidule cha a Michael Goulder pamalingaliro akuti "Kodi Q ndi Juggernaut?", Journal of Biblical Literature 115 (1996): 667-81, yotulutsidwa ku http://www.markgoodacre.org/Q/goulder.htm

Lingaliro la Farrer ponena za Mateyu