KJV Ndi Wachinyengo
KJV Ndi Wachinyengo

KJV Ndi Wachinyengo

Kodi King James Version ndi chiyani?

King James Version (KJV), Poyambirira idatchedwa Authorized Version, ndikutanthauzira kwachingerezi kwa Christian Bible kwa Church of England yomwe idamalizidwa mu 1611 mothandizidwa ndi king James waku England, Ireland, ndi Scotland.[1] Mu Januwale 1604, a King James adayitanitsa msonkhano woti akhazikitse ntchito yomasulira yatsopano poyankha kugwiritsa ntchito Geneva Bible ndi Oyeretsa[2], gulu la anthu ofuna kusintha zinthu ku Tchalitchi cha England.[3] Malangizo anaperekedwa kwa omasulira omwe cholinga chake chinali kuchepetsa mphamvu ya Oyeretsa pa kumasulira kwatsopano kumeneku. Omasulirawo sanaloledwe kuwonjezera zolemba m'mphepete ngati Geneva Bible.[4] A King James adatchula mavesi awiri ku Geneva komwe adawona zolemba zam'mbali zikukhumudwitsa mfundo zakukula kwachifumu.[5]

Mabaibulo achingerezi asanachitike KJV

William Tyndale anamasulira Chipangano Chatsopano ndikusindikiza Baibulo loyamba lachingelezi mu 1525.[6] Pambuyo pake Tyndale anakonzanso Chipangano Chatsopano chake (chofalitsidwa mu 1534) polingalira za kupititsa patsogolo maphunziro a Baibulo.[7] Tyndale anali atamasuliranso mbali zambiri za Chipangano Chakale. Iye ananyongedwa pa mlandu wa mpatuko chifukwa chomasulira ndi kufalitsa Baibulo m’chinenero chofala. Ntchito ya Tyndale ndi kalembedwe kake zinapangitsa kumasulira kwake kukhala maziko aakulu a matembenuzidwe onse otsatira m’Chingelezi choyambirira chamakono.[8] Mu 1539, New Testament ya Tyndale ndi ntchito yake yosakwanira pa Chipangano Chakale zidakhala maziko a Great Bible. Great Bible ndiye anali "woyamba kuvomerezedwa" kutulutsidwa ndi Tchalitchi cha England nthawi ya ulamuliro wa King Henry VIII.[9] Pambuyo pake Mabaibulo achingelezi ataletsedwanso, okonzanso zinthu adathawa mdzikolo ndikukhazikitsa gulu lolankhula Chingerezi ku Geneva Switzerland.[10] Anthu ochokera kunjawa anayamba kumasulira Baibulo lomwe linadziwika kuti Geneva Bible.[11] Baibulo la Geneva Bible, lomwe linatulutsidwa m’chaka cha 1560, linali lokonzedwanso la Baibulo la Tyndale ndi Baibulo la Great Bible ndipo linazikidwanso m’zinenero zoyambirira.[12]

Elizabeth Woyamba atakhala pampando wachifumu mu 1558, amfumu ndi Tchalitchi cha England adakangana ndi Great Bible komanso Geneva Bible, makamaka poganizira kuti Geneva Bible "sinkagwirizana ndi mpingo komanso kuwonetsa kapangidwe ka episkopi wa Tchalitchi cha England ndi zikhulupiriro zake za atsogoleri odzozedwa ”.[13] Mu 1568, Tchalitchi cha ku England chinayankha ndi Baibulo lakuti Bishops’ Bible, lomwe linali lokonzedwanso la Great Bible mogwirizana ndi Baibulo la Geneva.[14] Baibulo lonse lovomerezeka la Church of England, Bishops 'Bible linalephera kuchotsa kumasulira kwa Geneva kukhala Baibulo lotchuka kwambiri la Chingerezi m'nthawiyo.[15]

Geneva Bible - wotsutsana wamkulu komanso wolimbikitsira KJV

Geneva Bible idatulutsa King James Version pofika zaka 51. [16] Linali Baibulo lachingelezi loŵerengedwa kwambiri ndi lotchuka kwambiri m'zaka za m'ma 16 ndi 17 ndipo linasindikizidwa kuyambira 1560 mpaka 1644 m'mabaibulo oposa 150.[17] Pokhala chopangidwa ndi akatswiri ophunzira kwambiri Achiprotestanti m'masiku ake, idakhala Baibulo losankhidwa ndi ambiri mwa olemba, anzeru, komanso akatswiri am'mbuyomu. Geneva Bible ndiye Baibulo loyambirira la Chiprotestanti Chachingerezi cha m'zaka za zana la 16 ndipo adagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi William Shakespeare, [18] Oliver Cromwell, John Knox, John Donne, ndi John Bunyan, wolemba buku la The Pilgrim's Progress (1678).[19] A Pilgrim anabweretsa Baibulo la Geneva pa Mayflower ku Plymouth mu 1620.[20] Zolemba ndi maulaliki achipembedzo omwe amafalitsidwa ndi mamembala a Plymouth akuwonetsa kuti Geneva Bible adagwiritsa ntchito iwo okha.[21] William Bradford anazilemba m'buku lake la Plymouth Plantation.[22] Baibulo la Geneva Bible linali Baibulo limene a Puritan ankakonda kwambiri, osati la Authorized Version la King James.[23] Kutchuka kwa Baibulo kwa Geneva kunali kwakukulu, kulikonse kumene Chiprotestanti champhamvu chinapambana ndipo anali Baibulo losankhidwa ndi atsogoleri achipembedzo Achi puritan ku England, Scotland, ndi America panthawiyo.[24]

Geneva Bible inali mbiri yochititsa chidwi yochokera m'mabaibulo am'mbuyomu. Linali loyamba kugwiritsa ntchito machaputala ndi mavesi. Chifukwa chachikulu chomwe chidakhala chotchuka kwambiri munthawi yake ndizolemba zoposa 300,000 zam'mbali zomwe zidafotokozedwa ndikufotokozera ndikumasulira malemba kwa anthu wamba. Ndizolemba izi zomwe zimawerengedwa kuti zikuwopseza amfumu.[25] Popeza kuti Baibulo la Geneva Bible linali Baibulo lokondedwa la Apulotesitanti a Anglican ndi Oyeretsa, Mfumu James Woyamba anatsutsa ndipo anafotokoza maganizo ake pa msonkhano wa ku Hampton Court wa mu 1604 kuti: “Ndikuganiza kuti ku Geneva ndi koipa kwambiri kuposa zonse.”[26] Ankaona kuti zambiri mwazofotokozerazo zinali "zatsankho, zabodza, zoukira boma, komanso zonyansa kwambiri ...". Mwachiwonekere, adawona kutanthauzira kwa Geneva pa ndime za m'Baibulo monga "republicanism" yotsutsana ndi atsogoleri achipembedzo, zomwe zingatanthauze. olamulira matchalitchi anali osafunikira. Ndime zonena za mafumu ngati opondereza ankaonedwa kuti ndi zoukira boma. [27] Ankaopa kuti amene amaŵerenga zinthu zoterozo angakayikire kufunika kwa mfumu monga mutu wa tchalitchi ndipo ngati mfundo zoterozo zikanasindikizidwa, oŵerenga angakhulupirire kuti kumasulira kumeneku n’kolondola ndi kokhazikika, kumapangitsa kukhala kovuta kwambiri kusintha maganizo a anthu ake. [28]  James anali atafunsidwanso chimodzimodzi ndi atsogoleri achipulotesitanti ku Scotland, ndipo sanafune zoterezi ku England. 

Baibulo la Geneva Bible linali chiwopsezo cha ndale ku ufumu wake ndipo motero King James analamula ndi kubwereketsa matembenuzidwe atsopano a Baibulo amene akanamkhutiritsa, amene poyamba ankatchedwa Authorized Version - lololedwa kuŵerengedwa m’matchalitchi. Malangizowo anali ndi zinthu zingapo zimene zinathandiza kuti Baibulo latsopanoli likhale lodziwika kwa omvera ndi owerenga. Zolemba za Bishops’ Bible zikanakhala ngati chitsogozo chachikulu cha omasulira, ndipo mayina odziwika bwino a anthu a m’Baibulo akanasungidwa. Ngati Baibulo la Bishops’ Bible linkaonedwa kuti ndi lovuta mulimonse mmene zinalili, omasulirawo ankaloledwa kufufuza Mabaibulo ena kuchokera pa mpambo umene unavomerezedwa kale, kuphatikizapo Baibulo la Tyndale, Coverdale Bible, Matthew’s Bible, Great Bible, ndi Geneva Bible.[29] M'malo mokhala ntchito youziridwa yoyambirira, KJV inali yowunikiranso kocheperako ndi cholinga chachikulu chotsutsa chowonadi pomasulira mavesi osiyanasiyana m'njira yomwe inali yabwino kwa amfumu okhazikitsidwa komanso dongosolo lachipembedzo la nthawiyo. Mosiyana kwambiri ndi zimenezi, John Adams, pulezidenti wachiwiri wa ku United States analemba kuti: “Musayiwale Geneva kapena kunyozedwa. Ufulu wachipembedzo uyenera kulemekezedwa kwambiri. ”[30]

Mphamvu yaku Latin ndi Catholic Rheims New Testament

Authorized Version ikuwonetsa kukopa kwachilatini kuposa mitundu yakale ya Chingerezi. [31] Omasulira ambiri anavomereza kuti ankakonda kulemba m’Chilatini momasuka kusiyana ndi m’Chingelezi motsatira kalembedwe kake komanso kuletsa mawu ofotokozera kunathandizanso kuti anthu azidalira Chilatini.[32] Izi ndichifukwa choti Geneva Bible itha kugwiritsa ntchito liwu lodziwika bwino la Chingerezi ndikufotokozera tanthauzo lake munthawi yapakatikati, pomwe owerenga KJV sakanatha kupindula ndi zolemba motero kutanthauzira komweko kunkafuna mawu ena owonjezera kuchokera ku Anglicized Latin. Ngakhale panali malangizo oti agwiritse ntchito Bishops 'Bible ngati mawu oyambira, Chipangano Chatsopano cha KJV chimakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi Catholic Rheims New Testament, omwe omasulira awo adayesetsanso kupeza zomwe Chingerezi chimafanana ndi mawu achi Latin.[33] Pamalembo a Chipangano Chatsopano, omasulira a KJV anagwiritsa ntchito kwambiri Baibulo la 1598 ndi 1588/89 la Chigiriki la Theodore Beza, lomwe linaperekanso malemba achilatini pamodzi ndi achigiriki. [34] . Omasulirawo adakambirananso Chilatini. 

Pali kuwerengetsa pafupifupi 190 komwe omasulira a Authorized Version achoka pamalemba achi Greek a Beza kuti asunge mawu a Bishop's Bible ndi matembenuzidwe ena achingerezi akale.[35] Mabuku ena anayambika m’ma 1550 oyambirira a Baibulo lachigiriki lakuti Textus Receptus la Stephanus. Ngakhale pafupifupi 80% ya malemba a KJV New Testament sanasinthidwe kuchokera kumasulira kwa Tyndale, KJV inabwereka kwambiri kuchokera ku Latin Vulgate ndi Catholic Rheims New Testament. [36]  Baibulo la KJV limaphatikiza zowerengera zomwe zimapanga mipukutu yambiri yachi Greek ya zaka za zana la 16 ndipo imawonetsanso zowerengedwa zingapo zomwe sizinali zosindikizidwa m'malemba Achigiriki. Pamenepa, Chingelezi cha KJV chimachokera ku Latin Vulgate.[37] Popeza kuti KJV ikuyenera kuti, idamasuliridwa kuchokera kuzilankhulo zoyambirira, zitha kukhala zowopsa kwa ena kuti mawu ndi mawu ambiri mu KJV adachokera ku Latin Vulgate osati Lolemba Lachi Greek.

KJV monga kudzoza kwaumulungu

Ena mwa iwo omwe amachirikiza KJV anena kuti zisankho zogwiritsa ntchito Chilatini osati magwero achi Greek zidauziridwa ndi Mulungu.[38] Ena amafika mpaka kunena kuti AV / KJV ndi "vumbulutso latsopano", kapena "vumbulutso lapamwamba" lochokera kwa Mulungu.[39] Mtsutso wamba ndikuti ngati Mulungu apereka chowonadi kudzera mu vumbulutso la m'malemba, Mulungu ayeneranso kuwonetsetsa kusungidwa kosungidwa ndi kosaipitsidwa kwa vumbulutso lake. Chiphunzitso chawo cha kufalitsa kosungidwa mwadongosolo chimawapatsa malingaliro akuti Textus Receptus ayenera kukhala mawu oyandikana kwambiri ndi ma autographs achi Greek.[40] Izi zikutsutsana ndi kutsutsa kwamakono komwe kwawonetsa kuti zolembedwazo zidasokonezedwa kwazaka zambiri zapitazo. Kutsutsa kwamalemba kwatipatsa njira yoyeserera kuti tiwone zomwe zikuwoneka ngati zoyambirira popereka zolemba zotsitsimutsa komanso zida zowunikira kuzindikira mitundu yayikulu.[41]

Ngakhale kuti anthu ena a King James okha ndi omwe amaganiza kuti omasulira a KJV adauziridwa ndi Mulungu, omasulirawo sanatero. Iwo analemba kuti: “Choyambacho chinachokera kumwamba, osati cha padziko lapansi; woyambitsayo ali Mulungu, osati munthu; wolemba Mzimu Woyera, osati nzeru za Atumwi kapena Aneneri.”[42] Pambuyo pake adalemba kuti "chowonadi chonse chiyenera kuyesedwa ndi zilankhulo zoyambirira, Chiheberi ndi Chigiriki." Chifukwa chake, omasulira a King James amakhulupirira kuti mphamvu ya Lemba inali m'mipukutu yoyambirira yazilankhulo zoyambirira.

Omasulira a KJV ananenanso kuti Mabaibulo ena achingelezi anauziridwa, ngakhale omasulira osauka kwambiri. Iwo analemba kuti: “Ayi, tikutsimikizira ndi kulonjeza kuti Baibulo lachingerezi loipa kwambiri (loipa) ndilo Mawu a Mulungu.” Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti ankakhulupirira kuti Baibulo lililonse linauziridwa ndi Mulungu, ngakhale kuti Baibuloli linali lochepa bwanji. Iwo ankakhulupiriranso kuti inali ntchito ya womasulirayo kupitiriza kukonza chinenerocho, osati chifukwa chakuti Mawu a Mulungu ndi achikale, koma chifukwa chakuti Chingelezi chimasintha. Ndicho chifukwa chake omasulira a King James nthawi yomweyo anayamba kusintha kusintha kwa 1611 ndipo anatuluka ndi wina mu 1613 ndi wina mu 1629. Omasulira a KJV analemba kuti: "Sitinaganizepo kuyambira pachiyambi kuti tiyenera kupanga kumasulira kwatsopano ... koma kupangitsa zabwino kukhala zabwino, kapena zabwino zambiri, chabwino chimodzi ndiye chabwino.” Izi zikusonyeza kuti ankaona kuti Mabaibulo akale anali abwino, kuphatikizapo la William Tyndale, Coverdale ndi ena. Omasulirawo anadziona ngati opanda ungwiro ndipo anati, “ifenso sitinanyansidwe kukonzanso zimene tinachita.” Iwo analimbikitsanso kugwiritsa ntchito Mabaibulo osiyanasiyana akuti, “Kumasulira Mabaibulo osiyanasiyana n’kopindulitsa kuti munthu adziwe tanthauzo la Malemba.”[43]

Kutanthauzira kotanthauzira komanso kusiyanasiyana kwa ma KJV

Mosiyana ndi Baibulo la Geneva lomwe limagwirizana kwambiri ndi mawu omwewo m’Chingelezi chofanana, omasulira a King James anagwiritsa ntchito mawu osiyanasiyana achingelezi malinga ndi kumasulira kwawo tanthauzo la mawuwo. Omasulirawo ananena m’mawu oyamba kuti ankagwiritsa ntchito mawu obwerezabwereza, n’kupeza mawu angapo achingelezi m’malo amene chinenero choyambirira chinali kubwerezabwereza. M’kuchita nawonso anachita zosiyana monga kugwiritsira ntchito liwu limodzi lachingelezi lakuti “kalonga” monga matembenuzidwe a mawu 14 osiyanasiyana Achihebri.[44] Komabe, panthaŵi yomwe akanatha kugwiritsa ntchito Chingerezi chomwecho pa liwu lomwelo m'chinenero choyambirira, sanatero. Pomwe amayenera kuti agwiritse ntchito zilankhulo zosiyanasiyana za Chingerezi zofananira ndi mawu angapo mchilankhulo choyambirira, nawonso sanagwiritse ntchito.  

Kuphatikiza kwa Apocrypha

Ma Apocrypha ndi mabuku osakanika omwe adasindikizidwa mu 1611 King James Bible yoyambirira ndipo anali gawo la KJV kwa zaka 274 mpaka kuchotsedwa mu 1885 AD[45] Ambiri mwa mabukuwa amatchedwa deuterocanonical mabuku ndi ena kuphatikiza mpingo wa Katolika. Anthu akhala akunena kuti Apocrypha sayenera kuphatikizidwa popeza Apulotesitanti amakana kuti ndi Lemba. Kuphatikizidwa kwa Apocrypha ndi chisonyezo chakuti ma KJV ayenera kufunsidwa kuti ndi ouziridwa ndi Mulungu. Mwachitsanzo, lemba la Tobit 6: 5-8 limanena za matsenga ndipo sizigwirizana ndi Baibulo lonse. 2 Maccabees 12:45 amaphunzitsa za purigatoriyo. Ngakhale kuti mu 1560 Geneva Bible munali mabuku owonjezera owonjezera, iwo analekanitsidwa ndi Malemba ena onse ndipo analibe mawu okhala m'mphepete mwake. Mabaibulo ambiri amtsogolo a Geneva Bible analibe Apocrypha.[46]

KJV osachita bwino pompopompo

Poyamba King James Version sinagulitse bwino itapikisana ndi Geneva Bible. Kutulutsa koyamba komanso koyambirira kwa King James Bible kuyambira 1611 kulibe malingaliro, mosiyana ndi pafupifupi Mabaibulo onse a Geneva Bible mpaka nthawi imeneyo.[47] KJV inali yotsika mtengo kusindikiza chifukwa inalibe zolemba zambiri zomwe Geneva adalemba. Kukula koyambirira kwa KJV ku England kudathandizidwanso ndikusintha kwamisika pomwe mabaibulo a Geneva amatha kutumizidwa ku England ndi mtengo waukulu pomwe KJV idaloledwa kusindikizidwa ku England pamtengo wotsika.[48] A King James nawonso adachita zoletsa kusindikiza Mabaibulo atsopano a Geneva Bible.[49]

Ngakhale kuti linafalitsidwa mu 1611, sizinali mpaka 1661 pamene Baibulo la Authorized Version linalowa m’malo mwa Bishops Bible kuti liphunzire mu Book of Common Prayer. Ilo silinalowe m’malo mwa Bishops Bible in the Psalter (voliyumu ya bukhu la Masalimo kuti ligwiritsidwe ntchito pamwambo). Pamene Baibulo la KJV linkayamba kutchuka, panatsala ena mwa akatswiri, atsogoleri achipembedzo, ndi anthu wamba, omwe ankagwiritsabe ntchito Baibulo la Geneva Bible, akudandaula kuti tanthauzo la Malemba silingamveke bwino popanda mawu a Geneva Bible.[50] Zolemba za ku Geneva zidaphatikizidwadi m'mabaibulo angapo a King James, ngakhale kumapeto kwa 1715.[51] Oliver Cromwell, ankakonda Baibulo la Geneva, pamene mu 1643, anapereka 'The Soldier's Pocket Bible' kwa asilikali ake - kabuku ka masamba 16 kopangidwa ndi zolemba za Geneva Bible. Mpaka mu 1769, pamene kukonzanso kwakukulu kwa KJV kunatulutsidwa ndi kalembedwe kokonzedwanso ndi zizindikiro zopumira, maganizo a anthu ambiri anasintha mpaka kuzindikira kuti KJV (Authorized Version) ndi luso lachingelezi.[52]

Kuyerekeza mwachidule ndi Geneva Bible

Gome lotsatirali poyerekeza KJV ndi Geneva bible limafotokozera chifukwa chake KJV siyenera kulemekezedwa kwambiri.

Geneva Bible la 1599

King James Version ya 1611

Wouziridwa ndi Kusintha Kwachiprotestanti

Zotsatira zaku Counter-Reformation

Amakondedwa ndi anthu wamba, Oyeretsa, okonzanso, komanso atsamunda aku America

Amakondedwa ndi English Monarchy and Clergy

Baibulo la iwo omwe akufuna ufulu wachipembedzo

Baibulo la iwo omwe akufuna kuponderezedwa kwachipembedzo

Baibulo la olemba owunikira kuphatikiza Shakespeare, William Bradford, John Milton, ndi John Bunyan

Baibulo la 17th atsogoleri achipembedzo a Anglican

Kugwiritsa Ntchito Common English

Kugwiritsa Ntchito Chilatini cha Anglicized

Malembo amatanthauzira pang'ono (mawu achi Greek amamasuliridwa mosiyanasiyana pogwiritsa ntchito mawu ofanana achingerezi)

Chiyeso chimamasulira kwambiri (mawu osiyanasiyana achingerezi amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo osiyanasiyana liwu lachi Greek lomwelo)

Mawu am'munsi kwambiri

Mawu am'munsi ochepa

Zapambana chifukwa zimakondedwa ndi anthu

Zapambana chifukwa chololedwa mokakamiza, kugulitsa pamisika ndi kuletsa Geneva Bible

Zolemba zachinyengo za KJV

Kwa zaka mazana ambiri, pamene alembi amatengera ndikusintha zolembedwa pamipukutu ya Chipangano Chatsopano, matanthauzidwe owonjezera adalowa m'mipukutuyo ndikusintha kosiyanasiyana kudapangidwa mokomera chiphunzitso chachikhristu.[53] [54] Akatswiri amakono amayerekezera kuchuluka kwa mipukutu ya Chipangano Chatsopano yomwe siinatchulidwe m’malembo kuchokera pa 200,000 mpaka 750,000.[55] [56] [57] Ngakhale mitundu yambiri ndiyosafunikira, yambiri ndi yofunikira pamaphunziro azachipembedzo. [58] Tsoka ilo KJV imakhala ndi chinyengo chambiri chazolemba zisanachitike komanso kusanthula gulu lalikulu la mboni zoyambira zakale zomwe zidachitika zaka mazana angapo zapitazi.[59]

Mavesi angapo mu King James Version ya Chipangano Chatsopano sapezeka m'mabaibulo amakono. [60]  Akatswiri ambiri amawona mavesi omwe sanasiyidwe ngati mavesi omwe adawonjezeredwa m'malemba achi Greek.[61] Chigamulo cha mkonzi chochotsa ndimezi chinali chozikidwa pa umboni wooneka wosonyeza kuti ndimeyi iyenera kuti inali m’malemba oyambirira a Chipangano Chatsopano kapena kuti inawonjezeredwa pambuyo pake. Zimenezi zikugwirizana ndi mfundo ya kukonzanso mozama, monga momwe Mbusa Samuel T. Bloomfield, yemwe analemba mu 1832 analemba kuti, “Ndithu, palibe chinthu chokayikitsa chimene chiyenera kuvomerezedwa mu ‘mawu otsimikizirika’ a ‘Buku la Moyo’.” [62]

Baibulo la KJV lili ndi mavesi 26 ndi ndime zomwe siziri zoyambirira ndipo motero sizinasiyidwe kapena zimayikidwa m'matembenuzidwe amakono. Mavesiwa akuphatikizapo Mat 17:21, Mat 18:11, Mat 20:16, Mat 23:14, Marko 6:11(b), Marko 7:16, Marko 9:44, Marko 9:46, Marko 11:26 , Marko 15:28, Marko 15:28, Marko 16:9-20, Luka 4:8(b), Luka 9:55-56, Luka 17:36, Luka 23:17, Yohane 5:3-4, Yohane 7:53–8:11, Machitidwe 8:37, Machitidwe 9:5-6, Machitidwe 13:42, Machitidwe 15:34, Machitidwe 23:9(b), Machitidwe 24:6-8, Machitidwe 28:29 , Aroma 16:24 , ndi Comma Johanneum ya 1 Yohane 5:7-8 .[63] Ponena za mapeto aatali a Marko ( 16:9-20 ), pali chifukwa champhamvu chokaikira kuti mawuwo anali mbali ya malemba oyambirira a Mauthenga Abwino, monga momwe kwalongosoledwera ndi wosuliza wodziŵika kuti, “Monga mwa chiweruzo. mwa otsutsa abwino koposa, zigawo ziŵiri zofunika zimenezi ndizowonjezera ku malemba oyambirira a mwambo wa atumwi.” [64]

KJV ikuwonetsanso ziphuphu zovomerezeka zomwe mavesi adasinthidwa kuti athandizire zaumulungu za Utatu. Zitsanzo khumi ndi ziwiri za ziphuphu zomwe zimalimbikitsa zaumulungu mu KJV zikuphatikiza Mateyu 24:36, Marko 1: 1, John 6:69, Machitidwe 7:59, Machitidwe 20:28, Akolose 2: 2, 1 Timoteo 3:16, Aheberi 2:16 , Yuda 1:25, 1 Yohane 5: 7-8, Chivumbulutso 1: 8, ndi Chivumbulutso 1: 10-11.[65]

Zolemba zachi Greek za Chipangano Chatsopano zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga KJV zimadalira kwambiri zolemba pamanja zamtundu wa Byzantine.[66] Pokhala ndi zolemba zaposachedwa kwambiri zaposachedwa, akatswiri amakono amawerenga mosamala umboni wa zolembedwa pamanja za banja laku Alexandria monga mboni zoyambirira pamipukutu yoyambirira.[67] 

Erasmus ndi Comma Johanneum

Malembo Achigiriki a M'zaka za zana la 16 Novum Instrumentum onse yolembedwa ndi Desiderius Erasmus, yemwe pambuyo pake amadziwika kuti Textus Receptus, idathandizira kwambiri King James Version. [68] [69] Erasmus anali wansembe wachikatolika, ndipo, mosiyana ndi Luther ndi Calvin, sanachoke mu tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika.[70] Kusindikiza kwake kwachitatu kwa 1522 kunali kolemba pamipukutu ya Chigiriki yochepera khumi ndi iwiri yazaka za m'ma 12 mpaka 16.[71] Nthaŵi zina, Erasmus anayamba kuŵerenga Baibulo lachilatini la Vulgate m’malemba ake Achigiriki ngakhale kuti m’mabuku ake Achigiriki munalibe. Erasmus, limodzinso ndi zolemba zina zachigiriki zamagulu osiyanasiyana zogwirizanitsidwa ndi Textus Receptus, anasonyeza mmene alembi anasinthira kwa zaka pafupifupi XNUMX ndipo ankasiyana mosiyanasiyana ndi mipukutu yakale kwambiri ya m’zaka mazana asanu oyambirira pambuyo pa Kristu.[72] [73]

Erasmus anatsutsidwa kwambiri kuti Baibulo loyamba ndi lachiŵiri la malemba ake Achigiriki a m’zaka za zana la 16 analibe mbali ya 1 Yohane 5:7-8 .Koma Johanneum), amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochirikiza chiphunzitso cha Utatu, pomwe mipukutu yambiri yachi Latin inali nayo. Atafunsidwa za izi adanena kuti sanazipeze m'mipukutu iliyonse yachi Greek ndipo, poyankha otsutsa ena, adapitilizanso kunena kuti sizinali zosiyidwa, koma osangowonjezera (osawonjezera china chomwe sichili ). Anawonetsa ngakhale zolembedwa pamanja zachi Latin zomwe sizinakhalemo.[74] [75] Komabe, mu kope lachitatu la 1522, Comma Johanneum adawonjezeranso m'Chigiriki.[76] Erasmus anaphatikizanso buku la Comma Johanneum, chifukwa ankaona kuti panganolo linali lofunika kuliikamo ngati atapezeka mpukutu umene uli nawo. Pambuyo popeza malembo apamanja Achigiriki a m’zaka za m’ma 16 (Codex Montfortianus) amene analimo, iye anaganiza zowonjezerapo ngakhale kuti anakayikira ngati ndimeyo inalidi zoona.[77] [78]

Zomasulira mu Authorized Version ya 1611

Sikuti omasulira a KJV adangodalira zolemba pamanja zomwe panthawiyo sizinapezeke kumayambiriro kwa zaka za zana la 17th maphunziro a Baibulo,[79]  Palinso zosiyana zambiri mu Chipangano Chakale poyerekeza ndi kumasulira kwamakono. Kusiyana kumeneku kumachitika chifukwa chomvetsetsa molakwika mawu achiheberi akale ndi galamala ya omasulira. Chitsanzo ndikuti m'matembenuzidwe amakono zikuwonekeratu kuti Yobu 28: 1-11 amafotokoza za migodi, pomwe izi sizikuwonekera mu KJV.[80] Inde, King James ili ndi matanthauzidwe ambiri olakwika; makamaka mu Chipangano Chakale momwe chidziwitso cha Chiheberi ndi zilankhulo zodziwika sichinali chodziwika panthawiyo.[81] Cholakwika chomwe chimatchulidwa kwambiri chili m'Chihebri cha Yobu ndi Deuteronomo, pomwe mawu achihebri otanthauza ng'ombe yamphongo (mwina aurochs) limamasuliridwa mu KJV monga unicorn (Num 23:22; 24: 8; Deut 33:17; Yobu 39: 9,10; Sal 22:21; 29: 6; 92:10; Yes 34: 7); kutsatira Vulgate chipembere komanso olemba ndemanga achirabi angapo akale. Pamalo amodzi okha pamene omasulira a KJV adazindikira matembenuzidwe ena, "zipembere" m'mbali mwa Yesaya 34: 7.[82]

Nthaŵi zingapo mawu ofotokozera achihebri amatanthauziridwa molakwika ngati dzina lenileni (kapena mosemphanitsa); monga pa 2 Samueli 1:18 pomwe 'Book of Jasher' moyenera silikunena za ntchito yolemba wolemba dzinalo koma liyenera kukhala 'Bukhu la Oongoka' (lomwe lidanenedwa ngati kuwerenga kwina m'malo am'mbali Malembo a KJV).[83]

Mu Yeremiya 49: 1 The 1611 KJV idati "bwanji mfumu yawo ilowa Mulungu". Uku ndikulakwitsa komwe kuyenera kuwerengedwa Gadi ndipo yakonzedwa m'matembenuzidwe amakono.[84] Vuto lina lowonekeratu, lopangidwa ndi omasulira a King James Version, likupezeka mu Machitidwe 12: 4, pomwe mawu oti Isitala amagwiritsidwa ntchito. M'Chigiriki choyambirira, mawuwa ndi pasche ndipo akunena za Paskha, osati Isitala. Paskha ndi chikondwerero cha m'Baibulo chotchulidwa pa Eksodo 12:11, Levitiko 23:5, Mateyu 26:2, Mateyu 26:17 ndi kwina kulikonse m'Malemba. M’Chipangano Chatsopano cha Baibulo la KJV, liwu Lachigiriki la Paskha kaŵirikaŵiri limatembenuzidwa molondola kuti “Paskha,” kupatula pa Machitidwe 12:4 , pamene molakwika amawamasulira kuti Isitala.

KJV vs. Chiaramu Peshitta

George Lamsa potembenuza Baibulo kuchokera ku Syriac (Aramaic) Peshitta, adazindikira zolakwika zingapo mu King James Version zomwe zimakhudzana ndi kusazindikira mawu achihebri.[85] Zovuta zamalamulo zilipo, makamaka mchilankhulo chonga Chiheberi ndi Chiaramu (chilankhulo cha alongo kupita ku Chiheberi cholankhulidwa ndi Yesu) pomwe kadontho kamodzi pamwambapa kapena pansi pa kalata amasintha tanthauzo la mawu. Mizere yolembedwa pamanja imatha kudzaza chifukwa chosowa malo ndipo kadontho kamene kali pamwamba pa chilembo chimodzi kumatha kuwerengedwa ngati kuti kidayikidwa pansi pa kalata mu mzere wapitawo. Chitsanzo choperekedwa ndikuti kusiyana kokha m'mawu oti munthu wophunzira ndi munthu wopusa ndi kadontho, kapenanso pansi pa mawuwo. Kuphatikiza apo, zilembo zina zimafanana. Zina mwamasulidwe ofunikira kwambiri adachitika chifukwa cha kusokonezeka kwa zilembo ndi mawu.

Milandu yotsatirayi ikuwonetsa kufanana kwa mawu ndi zilembo komanso momwe matanthauzidwe ena amaperekedwera kuchokera pachilankhulo china kupita pachilichonse. Ena amakhulupirira kuti kalembedwe kachiheberi kakale kanasowa, ndipo Peshitta ndiye malemba okhawo amene tingadziwire nawo mawu akale a m'Baibulo.

Deuteronomo 27: 16

Peshitta: Wotembereredwa iye wotukwana abambo ake kapena amayi ake…

KJV: Wotembereredwa akhale iye akukhazikitsa kuwala ndi abambo ake kapena amayi ake…

 

Deuteronomo 32: 33

Peshita: Awo utsi Ndiye poizoni wa zimbalangondo, Ndipo ndi poizoni wa mamba.

KJV: Awo vinyo Ndi poizoni wa zimbalangondo ndi poizoni wa mamba.

2 Samuel 4: 6

Peshita: Ndipo tawonani, adalowa pakati pa nyumba; ndiye kuti ana oyipa aja anatenga ndipo adamkantha pamimba pake…

KJV: Ndipo adadza kulowa pakati pa nyumba, ngati kuti akadatero ndatenga tirigu; ndipo adamumenya ndi nthiti yachisanu…

Job 19: 18

Peshitta: Inde, ngakhale oyipa amandinyoza; ndikaimirira, anditsutsa.
KJV
: Inde, ana aang'ono anandinyoza; Ndidawuka, ndipo adanditsutsa.

 

Job 29: 18

Peshitta: Kenako ndinati, Ndidzawongoka ngati bango. Ndidzapulumutsa aumphawi, ndi kuchulukitsa masiku anga ngati mchenga wa kunyanja.

KJV: Pamenepo ndinati, Ndidzatero kufera chisa changa, ndipo ndidzachulukitsa masiku anga ngati mchenga

 

Salmo 144: 7,11

Peshita: Tambasula dzanja lako kuchokera kumwamba; ndipulumutseni m'madzi ambiri, m'dzanja la Yehova osapembedza.. Ndipulumutseni ku dzanja la oipa, Amene pakamwa pawo anena zopanda pake, Ndi dzanja lawo lamanja ndi dzanja lamanja lachinyengo.

KJV: tumizani dzanja lanu kuchokera kumwamba; undichotse ndi kundilanditsa m'madzi ambiri, m'dzanja la ana achilendo… Mundiyeretse ndi kundilanditsa ku dzanja la ana achilendoamene pakamwa pawo anena zopanda pake, ndi dzanja lawo lamanja ndi dzanja lamanja lachinyengo.

 

Mlaliki 2: 4

Peshitta: Ndinachulukitsa antchito anga…

KJV: Ndinapanga ntchito zazikulu…

 

Yesaya 10: 27

Peshitta: … Ndipo goli lidzasweka m'khosi mwako chifukwa cha mphamvu yanu.

KJV: ... ndipo goli lidzawonongedwa chifukwa cha kudzoza.

 

Yesaya 29: 15

Peshita: Tsoka kwa iwo amene kuchita molakwika kubisa uphungu wawo kwa Yehova; ndi ntchito zawo zili mumdima, ndipo amati, Ndani atiwona ife? Ndipo, Ndani akudziwa zomwe timachita molakwika?

KJV: Tsoka kwa iwo funani mwakuya kubisa uphungu wawo kwa Ambuye, ndipo ntchito zawo zili mumdima, ndipo amati, Ndani akutiwona? Ndipo ndani amatidziwa ife?

 

Yeremiya 4: 10

Peshitta: Pamenepo ndinati, Ndikupemphani, Ambuye Mulungu Ndanyenga kwambiri anthu awa ndi Yerusalemu; pakuti ndanena ...

KJV: Pamenepo ndinati, Ha, Ambuye Mulungu! Ndithudi wanyenga kwambiri anthu awa ndi Yerusalemu, akuti…

 

Ezekieli 32: 5

Peshitta: Ndipo ndidzamwaza thupi lako pamapiri, ndikudzaza zigwa ndi zako fumbi;


KJV
: Ndipo ndidzaika thupi lako pamapiri, ndikudzaza zigwa zako kutalika.

 

Obadiya 1:21

Peshitta: ndipo iwo amene apulumutsidwa adzakwera pa phiri la Ziyoni kukaweruza mapiri a Esau…

KJV
: Ndipo opulumutsa adzakwera pa phiri la Ziyoni kudzaweruza mapiri a Esau…

 

Mika 1: 12

Peshitta: pakuti opanduka wokhalamo amadwala kudikirira zabwino; pakuti tsoka latsika kuchokera kwa Yehova kudza kuchipata cha Yerusalemu.

KJV: Kwa wokhalamo Maloti anadikira bwino; koma choipa chinatsika kuchokera kwa Yehova, kufikira chipata cha Yerusalemu.

 

Habakuku 3: 4

Peshitta: Ndipo kunyezimira kwake kudali monga kuwalako; mu mzinda Limene manja ake anakhazikitsa adzasunga mphamvu zake.

KJV: Ndipo kunyezimira kwake kudali monga kuwalako; anali ndi nyanga zotuluka za kubisalako kwa mphamvu yake.

 

Kulakwitsa kwa Ahebri kwa Paulo

Mutu wa KJV wa Ahebri ndi "Kalata ya Paulo Mtumwi kwa Ahebri" yomwe ndi yolakwika. Ngakhale pakhoza kukhala kuyanjana kwa Pauline ndi Aheberi, miyambo yamtchalitchimo pambuyo pake idalakwitsa kuyanjana kwa Pauline ngati wolemba Pauline.

Clement waku Alexandria (cha m'ma AD 150 mpaka 215) amaganiza kuti kalatayo idalembedwa ndi Paulo mu Chiheberi kenako ndikumasulira m'Chigiriki ndi Luka.[86] Origen (cha m'ma AD 185-253) adati malingalirowo ndi a Pauline koma adati wina angolemba zazifupi ndikulemba zomwe mtumwiyu amaphunzitsa komanso kunena.[87] Origen anapititsa patsogolo mwambo woti mwina Luka kapena Clement waku Roma ndiye adalemba, koma sanasiyire pomwepo kuti wolemba ndi ndani. Akatswiri ambiri amakhulupirira kuti Origen anali wokayikira za wolemba kuyambira pomwe analemba kuti, "Koma amene analemba kalatayo, ndi Mulungu yekha amene akudziwa."[88] Tertullian (cha m'ma AD 155-220) adanenanso kuti Barnaba ndiye mlembi wosonyeza kuti m'zaka zoyambilira zakumadzulo chakumadzulo sanafune kupereka kalatayo kwa Paulo.[89] Ophunzira ambiri a Chipangano Chatsopano masiku ano amakhulupirira kuti Paulo sanalembe Ahebri. Onse awiri a John Calvin komanso a Martin Luther adagawana nawo chiweruzochi.[90] Ngakhale zaka mazana angapo zapitazo m'zaka za zana lachinayi, mpingo waku Roma sunakhulupirire kuti Paulo analemba Ahebri.[91] Kukanidwa kwa kulemba kwa Pauline kwa Ahebri ndiudindo wakale pachikhalidwe cha tchalitchi.[92]

Kulemba kwa Pauline kuyenera kukanidwa potengera umboni wamkati. M'makalata 13 a Paulo amadzizindikiritsa yekha dzina, motero kusapezeka kwa dzina mu Ahebri kumatsimikizira kuti Paulo ndi amene analemba kalatayo.[93] Bukhu la Ahebri lenilenilo limasonyeza wolemba wina kupatula Paulo kuyambira kalembedwe, kupatula mavesi omaliza (13: 18-25), ndiosiyana ndi kupukutidwa kwina kulikonse kwa Paulo komwe kudakalipo.[94] Mtsutso wokopa kwambiri ndi momwe wolemba amadzitchulira yekha pa Ahebri 2: 3, ponena kuti uthenga wabwino udatsimikiziridwa "kwa ife" ndi iwo omwe adamva Ambuye akulengeza za chipulumutso.[95] Nthawi zambiri Paulo adanenanso kuti anali mtumwi wa Yesu Khristu komanso kuti Uthenga Wabwino udatsimikizidwira kwa iye mwachindunji. Izi zitha kuyimitsa Paulo ngati mlembi wa Ahebri.

Kuwerenga kovuta kwa KJV

Poyerekeza ndimatanthauzidwe amakono a KJV satha kuwerenga bwino. Amagwiritsa ntchito mawu achikale omwe owerenga amakono amavutika kumvetsetsa. Chifukwa tanthauzo la magawo osiyanasiyana nthawi zambiri silimadziwika kwa owerenga amakono, KJV nthawi zambiri imakondedwa ndi magulu ampatuko omwe amapereka tanthauzo linalake ndikupeza ziphunzitso kuchokera m'mawu osamveka bwino. Chingerezi cha Elizabethan sichimveka bwino, chimasokoneza, ndipo nthawi zina sichimvetsetseka kwa Akhristu. Pali mawu ndi ziganizo zosachepera 827 m'masiku a King James zomwe zasintha tanthauzo lake kapena sizikugwiritsidwanso ntchito mchilankhulo chathu chamakono, chachizungu (mwachitsanzo, kuvutika, phindu lonyansa, kufulumira, kusuta, sera, chikondi, zovala za amuna kapena akazi okhaokha) .[96] Mawu ambiri ali ndi tanthauzo lina losiyana ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka masiku ano kuposa momwe analiri nthawi ya King James Version. Mwachitsanzo, monga agwiritsidwira ntchito mu KJV, mawu oti 'lengezani' amatanthauza 'uzani,' 'allege' amatanthauza 'kutsimikizira,' ndipo 'kukambirana' kumatanthauza 'machitidwe', 'kulankhulana' kumatanthauza 'kugawana,' 'kutenga' njira ' khalani ndi nkhawa, '' kuteteza 'amatanthauza' patsogolo ',' nyama 'ndi mawu oti' chakudya, 'ndi' anon 'ndi' potanthauzira mawu achi Greek omwe amatanthauza 'nthawi yomweyo'.[97]

Kugwiritsa ntchito molakwika KJV lero

KJV ndikumasulira kwa 'Orthodox' ku Tchalitchi cha Orthodox ku America ndipo chimagwiritsidwa ntchito mozungulira mibadwo yonse ya American Orthodox ”. King James Version ndi imodzi mwamasinthidwe ovomerezeka kuti agwiritsidwe ntchito mu Tchalitchi cha Episcopal ndi Mgonero wa Anglican.[98] Mpingo wa Yesu Khristu wa Otsatira Amasiku Otsiriza ukupitirizabe kugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo la Authorized Version monga Baibulo lawo lachingelezi lovomerezeka. Otsatira a King James gulu lokhalo limakhalanso ndi mamembala ambiri a evangelicals, mipingo yachibaptisti yokhazikika komanso mamembala a gulu la chiyero chodziletsa.[99] Maguluwa, pogwiritsa ntchito kumasulira kwachikale komanso kopanda tanthauzo, akukhalabe otalikirana ndi kumveka kwa Baibulo monga kwathandizira kuwongolera kwazolemba komanso maphunziro amakono.

A Mormon avomereza KJV popeza imagwira ntchito yawo kukweza Bukhu la Mormon (BOM). M'buku la Machitidwe, muli nkhani zitatu zosonyeza kutembenuka kwa Mtumwi Paulo. Zikuwoneka kuti, monga momwe alembedwera mu KJV, pali zotsutsana pakati pa nkhani za chipulumutso chake (Machitidwe 9: 7 onaninso 22: 9). Amagwiritsa ntchito izi zomwe zimawoneka ngati zotsutsana kunyoza Baibulo ngati njira yokwezera Bukhu la Mormon. Ichi ndi chitsanzo chomveka cha momwe mawu obisika a KJV amathandizira magulu ena kufalitsa zolakwika.[100] Izi zikugwirizana ndi malingaliro owunikiridwa a 1763, "Kutanthauzira konyenga kambiri, mawu osamveka bwino, mawu achikale ndi mawu osakhazikika ... amasangalatsa kunyoza kwa wonyoza."[101]

Akhristu omwe ali m'magulu ang'onoang'ono omwe amatsatira mfundo zachikhalidwe nthawi zambiri amakhala ndi malingaliro olakwika odzikweza podzizindikiritsa okha ndi kumasulira kwa KJV, komwe sangamvetsetse, koma amafuna kuti ena onse awerengenso omwe angasocheretse. Zomwe zimatuluka ndi mtundu wa Gnosticism momwe atsogoleri ena ampatuko amatha kuwerenga matanthauzo ongopeka m'ndime zosiyanasiyana zosamvetsetseka ndikupereka "vumbulutso" latsopano kapena lachilendo. Chenjerani, Baibulo la King James Version ndi loipitsidwa ndi lolakwa ndipo siliyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito masiku ano.

Ndemanga

[1] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "King James Version," Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=King_James_Version&oldid=1013280015 (yofikira pa Marichi 22, 2021).

[2] Daniell, David (2003). The Bible in English: mbiri yake ndi mphamvu. P. 435. New Haven, Konf: Yale University PressISBN 0-300-09930-4.

[3] Phiri, Christopher (1997). Society and Puritanism mu chisanachitike chisinthiko ku England. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-17432-2.

[4] Daniel 2003, tsa. 439.

[5] Daniel 2003, tsa. 434.

[6] Daniel 2003, tsa. 143.

[7] Daniel 2003, tsa. 152.

[8] Daniel 2003, tsa. 156.

[9] Daniel 2003, tsa. 204.

[10] Daniel 2003, tsa. 277.

[11] Daniel 2003, tsa. 292.

[12] Daniel 2003, tsa. 304.

[13] Daniel 2003, tsa. 339.

[14] Daniel 2003, tsa. 344.

[15] Bobrick, Benson (2001). Kutali ngati madzi: nkhani ya Chingerezi Baibulo ndi kusintha komwe kudalimbikitsa. p. 186. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84747-7

[16] Metzger, Bruce (1 Okutobala 1960). "Geneva Bible la 1560". Theology lero. 17 (3): 339–352. awiri:10.1177 / 004057366001700308

[17] Herbert, AS (1968), Historical Catalog of Printed Editions of the English Bible 1525–1961, London, New York: Bungwe la British and Foreign Bible Society, American Bible Society, SBN 564-00130-9.

[18] Ackroyd, Peter (2006). Shakespeare: Wambiri (Mabuku Oyamba Anchor ed.). Mabuku Anchor. p. 54. ISBN 978-1400075980

[19] 1599 Geneva Bible

[20] Wopondereza, John C. (2008). The English Bible Translations and History: Millennium Edition (yosinthidwa ed.). Xlibris Corporation (yofalitsidwa 2013). ISBN 9781477180518. Kubwezeretsedwa 2018-10-30. Amwendamnjira mkati mwa Mayonesi […] Anabweretsa makope a Geneva Baibulo cha 1560; losindikizidwa ku Geneva ndi Roland Hall.

[21] “Mwezi Uwo Onsefuka”The Mayflower Quarterly. General Society of Mayflower Achibale. 73: 29. 2007. Yotulutsidwa 2018-10-30. Geneva Bible iyi, limodzi mwa mabuku amtengo wapatali a Mayflower, anali a William Bradford.

[22] https://www.apuritansmind.com/puritan-worship/the-geneva-bible

[23] https://www.apuritansmind.com/puritan-worship/the-geneva-bible

[24] https://www.apuritansmind.com/puritan-worship/the-geneva-bible/the-1560-geneva-bible/

[25] https://genevabible.com/product/geneva-bible-patriots-edition/

[26] Othandizira pa Wikipedia. (2021, Epulo 20). Geneva Baibulo. Mu Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia. Zobwezeredwa 06:59, Meyi 17, 2021, kuchokera https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geneva_Bible&oldid=1018975232

[27] Ipgrave, Julia (2017). Adam mu Kulemba Kwandale M'zaka za zana la XNUMX ku England ndi New England. London: Taylor ndi Francis. p. 14. ISBN 9781317185598.

[28] Othandizira pa Wikipedia. (2021, Meyi 11). Baibulo la King James Version. Mu Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia. Zobwezeredwa 07:19, Meyi 17, 2021, kuchokera https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=King_James_Version&oldid=1022673429

[29] Othandizira pa Wikipedia. (2021, Meyi 11). Baibulo la King James Version. Mu Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia. Zobwezeredwa 07:19, Meyi 17, 2021, kuchokera https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=King_James_Version&oldid=1022673429

[30] https://genevabible.com/product/geneva-bible-patriots-edition/

[31] Daniel 2003, tsa. 440.

[32] Daniel 2003, tsa. 440.

[33] Bobrick 2001, tsa. 252.

[34] Wolemba Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1884). Authorized Edition of the English Bible, 1611, zomwe zidasindikizidwanso pambuyo pake komanso oimira amakono. p. 60. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zosungidwa kuchokera choyambirira pa 2008.

[35] Zowonjezera 1884, masamba 243-63

[36] Daniel 2003, tsa. 448.

[37] Zowonjezera 1884, tsa. 262.

[38] Edward F. Hills, King James Version Yotetezedwa!, mas. 199-200.

[39] Oyera, James (1995), Kutsutsana kwa King James Kokha: Kodi Mungakhulupirire Matanthauzidwe Amakono?, Minneapolis: Bethany House, tsa. 248ISBN 1-55661-575-2Mtengo wa OCLC 32051411

[40] Edward F. Hills, King James Version Yotetezedwa!, mas. 199-200.

[41] Bruce M. Metzger & Bart D. Ehrman, "The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, ndi Kubwezeretsa", OU New York, Oxford, kope la 4, 2005 (p87-89)

[42] https://www.thenivbible.com/is-the-king-james-version-the-only-divinely-inspired-version/

[43] https://www.thenivbible.com/is-the-king-james-version-the-only-divinely-inspired-version/

[44] “Zaka 400 za King James Bible”Times Literary Supplement. 9 February 2011. Zasungidwa kuchokera choyambirira pa 17 June 2011. Chotsatira 8 March 2011.

[45] https://www.kingjamesbible.me/Apocrypha-Books/

[46] https://www.goodnewsforcatholics.com/bible/question-when-was-the-apocrypha-removed-from-the-bible.html

[47] TO: Zaka 400 (Kutulutsa 86) Kugwa 2011 ″.

[48] Daniell, David (2003). The Bible in English: mbiri yake ndi mphamvu. New Haven, Conn: Yale University PressISBN 0-300-09930-4.

[49] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "Geneva Bible," Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geneva_Bible&oldid=1018975232 (yofikira pa Meyi 18, 2021).

[50] https://www.apuritansmind.com/puritan-worship/the-geneva-bible/the-1560-geneva-bible/

[51] Herbert, AS (1968), Historical Catalog of Printed Editions of the English Bible 1525–1961, London, New York: Bungwe la British and Foreign Bible Society, American Bible Society, SBN 564-00130-9.

[52] “Zaka 400 za King James Bible”Times Literary Supplement. 9 February 2011. Zasungidwa kuchokera choyambirira pa 17 June 2011. Chotsatira 8 March 2011.

[53] Bruce M. Metzger & Bart D. Ehrman, "The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, ndi Kubwezeretsa", OU New York, Oxford, kope la 4, 2005 (p87-89)

[54]  Bart D. Ehrman, “Kuwonongeka kwa Mawu a Orthodox. Zotsatira za Mikangano Yoyambirira ya Khrisitu pa Zolemba za Chipangano Chatsopano ”, Oxford University Press, New York - Oxford, 1996, tsamba 223-227.

[55] Bruce M. Metzger & Bart D. Ehrman, "The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, ndi Kubwezeretsa", OU New York, Oxford, kope la 4, 2005 (p87-89)

[56] Mlembi Eldon J. Epp, "N 'chifukwa Chiyani Kutsutsa Kwamalemba Chipangano Chatsopano Kuli Kofunika?Nthawi Yogwiritsa Ntchito 125 ayi. 9 (2014), p. 419.

[57] Peter J. Gurry, "Chiwerengero cha Zosiyanasiyana mu Greek New Testament: A Proposed EstimateMaphunziro a Chipangano Chatsopano 62.1 (2016), tsa. 113

[58] Bart D. Ehrman, “Kuwonongeka kwa Mawu a Orthodox. Zotsatira za Mikangano Yoyambirira ya Khrisitu pa Zolemba za Chipangano Chatsopano ”, Oxford University Press, New York - Oxford, 1996, tsamba 223-227.

[59] Bruce M. Metzger & Bart D. Ehrman, "The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, ndi Kubwezeretsa", OU New York, Oxford, kope la 4, 2005 (p87-89)

[60] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "Mndandanda wa mavesi a Chipangano Chatsopano osaphatikizidwa m'matanthauzidwe amakono a Chingerezi," Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_New_Testament_verses_not_included_in_modern_English_translations&oldid=1010948502 (yofikira pa Marichi 23, 2021).

[61] Bobrick, Benson (2001). Kutali ngati madzi: nkhani ya Chingerezi Baibulo ndi kusintha komwe kudalimbikitsa. New York: Simoni & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84747-7.

[62] Samueli T. Bloomfield, Chipangano Chatsopano Chachi Greek (woyamba ed. 1832, Cambridge) vol. 2, tsamba 128.

[63] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "Mndandanda wa mavesi a Chipangano Chatsopano osaphatikizidwa m'matanthauzidwe amakono a Chingerezi," Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_New_Testament_verses_not_included_in_modern_English_translations&oldid=1010948502 (yofikira pa Marichi 23, 2021).

[64] Philip SchaffAnzake ku Greek New Testament ndi English Version (1883, NY, Harper & Bros.) tsamba 431.

[65] Bart D. Ehrman, “Kuwonongeka kwa Mawu a Orthodox. Zotsatira za Mikangano Yoyambirira ya Khrisitu pa Zolemba za Chipangano Chatsopano ”, Oxford University Press, New York - Oxford, 1996, tsamba 223-227.

[66] Metzger, Bruce M. (1964). Malemba a Chipangano Chatsopano. Clarendon. masamba 103-106, 216-218

[67] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "Textus Receptus," Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Textus_Receptus&oldid=1007768105 (idafika pa Meyi 18, 2021)

[68] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "Textus Receptus," Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Textus_Receptus&oldid=1007768105 (yofikira pa Meyi 18, 2021).

[69] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "Novum Instrumentum omne," Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Novum_Instrumentum_omne&oldid=1007766164 (yofikira pa Meyi 18, 2021).

[70] The King James Version Debate: A Plea For Realism, DA Carson, 1979, Baker Book House, tsa. 74

[71] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "Novum Instrumentum omne," Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Novum_Instrumentum_omne&oldid=1007766164 (yofikira pa Meyi 18, 2021).

[72] Bruce M. Metzger & Bart D. Ehrman, "The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, ndi Kubwezeretsa", OU New York, Oxford, kope la 4, 2005 (p87-89)

[73] Metzger, Bruce M. (1964). Malemba a Chipangano Chatsopano. Clarendon.

[74] Metzger, Bruce M .; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005) [1964]. "Chaputala 3. NTHAWI YOFUNIKA KWAMBIRI. Chiyambi ndi Mphamvu ya Textus Receptus ". The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, ndi Kubwezeretsa (Wolemba 4.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780195161229.

[75] Tregelles, SP (1854). Nkhani yosindikizidwa ya Greek New Testament; ndi ndemanga pakukonzanso kwake pamalingaliro ovuta. Pamodzi ndi kuphatikizidwa kwa zolembedwa zovuta za Griesbach, Schloz, Lachmann, ndi Tischendorf, ndi zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito wamba. London: Samuel Bagster ndi Ana. p. 22. Mtengo wa OCLC 462682396.

[76]  Tregelles, SP (1854). Nkhani yosindikizidwa ya Greek New Testament; ndi ndemanga pakukonzanso kwake pamalingaliro ovuta. Pamodzi ndi kuphatikizidwa kwa zolembedwa zovuta za Griesbach, Schloz, Lachmann, ndi Tischendorf, ndi zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito wamba. London: Samuel Bagster ndi Ana. p. 26. Mtengo wa OCLC 462682396.

[77]   Metzger, Bruce M .; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005) [1964]. "Chaputala 3. NTHAWI YOFUNIKA KWAMBIRI. Chiyambi ndi Mphamvu ya Textus Receptus ". The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, ndi Kubwezeretsa (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780195161229.

[78]  Erasmus, Desiderius (1993-08-01). Reeve, Anne (mkonzi.). Zolemba za Erasmus pa Chipangano Chatsopano: Agalatiya mpaka Apocalypse. Facsimile wa Final Latin Text wokhala ndi mitundu yonse yoyambirira. Kafukufuku mu History of Christian Traditions, Volume: 52. Brill. p. 770. ISBN 978-90-04-09906-7.

[79] Daniel 2003, tsa. 5.

[80] Bruce, Frederick Fyvie (2002). Mbiri ya Baibulo mu Chingerezi. P. 145. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press. ISBN 0-7188-9032-9.

[81] “Zolakwa mu King James Version? Wolemba William W. Combs ” (PDF). DBSJ. 1999. Zasungidwa kuchokera ku choyambirira (PDF) pa 23 Seputembara 2015.

[82] "BibleGateway -: Einhorn"biblegateway.com.

[83] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "King James Version," Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=King_James_Version&oldid=1013280015 (yofikira pa Meyi 18, 2021).

[84] https://www.petergoeman.com/errors-in-king-james-version-kjv/

[85] Lamsa, George. Buku Lopatulika Lakale Lakale KumanjaISBN 0-06-064923-2.

[86] Eusebius, Mbiri. alangizi. 6.14.1.

[87] Eusebius, Mbiri. alangizi. 6.25.13

[88] Uku ndikumasulira kwanga kwa Eusebius, Mbiri. alangizi. 6.25.14.

[89] Harold W. Attridge, Kalata kwa Ahebri, Hermeneia (Philadelphia: Linga, 1989)

[90] https://blog.logos.com/who-wrote-hebrews-why-it-may-not-be-paul/

[91] Eusebius, Mbiri. alangizi. 3.3.5; 6.20.3

[92] https://blog.logos.com/who-wrote-hebrews-why-it-may-not-be-paul/

[93] https://blog.logos.com/who-wrote-hebrews-why-it-may-not-be-paul/

[94] https://zondervanacademic.com/blog/who-wrote-the-book-of-hebrews

[95] https://zondervanacademic.com/blog/who-wrote-the-book-of-hebrews

[96] https://www.evangelicaloutreach.org/kjvo.htm

[97] The King James Version Debate: A Plea For Realism, DA Carlson, Baker Book House, 1979, masamba 101,102

[98] Mabuku a General Convention of the Episcopal Church: Canon 2: Of Translations of the Bible Zosungidwa 24 Julayi 2015 ku Wayback Machine

[99] Othandizira pa Wikipedia, "Kusuntha kwa King James Kokha," Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=King_James_Only_movement&oldid=1022499940 (yofikira pa Meyi 18, 2021).

[100] https://www.evangelicaloutreach.org/kjvo.htm

[101] Kubwereza Kovuta, 1763